A Botanical Alphabet – ACRONYMS & Abbreviations


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

AAAS – ”The American Association for the Advancement of Science is an international non-profit organization dedicated to advancing science for the benefit of all people.”

AABC – Australian Associated Bonsai Clubs

AABP – (Archaic) “Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program: “The AABP team was established within the Peruvian Andes and Amazon for over seven years. During this time, the team established connections with other scientific organizations and non-profits. These collaborations led to many publications regarding the conservation of this highly diverse area. This research also helped to create new laws regarding wetlands in Peru. To understand the rich biological diversity of this region and to contribute to wise conservation planning, the BRIT-AABP team and their collaborators conducted botanical and ecological inventories and investigations of plant-animal interactions from the high Andes to the Amazonian lowlands.”

AARCC – (Archaic) “Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Corporation (AARCC) — As authorized by the 1990 farm bill (P.L. 101-624), AARCC was originally established as the Applied Agricultural Research Commercialization Center in the USDA to be a public venture capital agency that would invest in small businesses to help them develop and commercialize new nonfood products from agricultural and forestry commodities. The 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) changed the Center from a government agency to a wholly-owned venture capital corporation of USDA. Congress repealed the authority for AARCC in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 6201).” (Womach, 2005)

ABC – American Botanical Council: “Vision – The public makes educated, responsible choices about herbal medicine as an accepted part of healthcare. Our Mission – Provide education using science-based and traditional information to promote responsible use of herbal medicine — serving the public, researchers, educators, healthcare professionals, industry and media. ¶Since 1988, the American Botanical Council (ABC) has been educating consumers, healthcare professionals, researchers, educators, industry and the media on the safe and effective use of herbs and medicinal plants. Click here to read the history and highlights of ABC (through 2013) and the first 100 HerbalGrams. ABC is an independent, nonprofit organization supported by thousands of members around the world. ¶From its headquarters at the Case Mill Homestead in Austin, Texas, ABC publishes HerbalGram, a peer-reviewed quarterly journal; HerbClip, a twice-monthly series of summaries and critical reviews of recently published herbal literature; HerbalEGram, a monthly electronic publication; Herbal News & Events, a weekly update on events and media; and the Botanical Monitor, a quarterly newsletter addressing botanical adulteration issues. ABC is also the publisher of four books, including The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs, a continuing education and reference book, which contains extensive monographs on the safety and efficacy of 30 popular herbs. In addition, ABC works through its Media Education program to respond to inaccuracies and misrepresentations in the media and provide proactive, science-based information about herbal medicine. ABC also provides an internship program for students of pharmacy and dietetics, as well as other training and certification programs.”

ABCD – “The Access to Biological Collections Data (ABCD) Schema is an evolving comprehensive standard for the access to and exchange of data about specimens and observations (a.k.a. primary biodiversity data). The ABCD Schema attempts to be comprehensive and highly structured, supporting data from a wide variety of databases. It is compatible with several existing data standards. Parallel structures exist so that either (or both) atomised data and free-text can be accommodated. Sponsored by Biodiversity Information Standards TDWG – the Taxonomic Databases Working Group.” Also search: ABCD 3.0 – The Project

ABIS (SIBA)- “The Andean Botanical Information System (ABIS) presents information from floristic and systematic investigations of the flowering plants (phanerogams) of Andean South America. Topics include selected geographic regions and groups of Andean plants, flora of coastal Peru and Chile, floristic inventories from a variety of habitats in northern Peru, bibliographic resources, and searchable databases.”

ABE – (Popular Fiction) Speculation from Dr. Fright: “There are rumours that the government (US) already assigned a specific department to analyze and study some unexplained creature. The ABEs (Anomalous Biological Entities) was believed to be set-up at around 2000-2001 in Texas to tackle issue that surrounds cryptids. ABEs have also been associated to the chupacabra incident, UFO’s and other biological experiments conducted by the U.S. Government. Some people believe that the truth about these cryptids are being covered by the government and the media to prevent a wide spread panic.”

ABNE “NEPAD Agency African Biosafety Network of Expertise (ABNE) is a biosafety resource network for African regulators and policy makers. The overall goal of ABNE is to enhance the capacity of African countries to build functional biosafety regulatory systems. This will enable these countries to harness modern agricultural biotechnology support for improved food security, income and livelihoods while minimising potential risks to the environment and human health.”

ABS – American Bamboo Society: “The ABS was formed in 1979 and today we have over 700 members living throughout the U.S. and in 37 other countries. The ABS issues a bimonthly Magazine and the Journal to disseminate information about the use, care, propagation and beauty of bamboo.”

ABLS – “The American Bryological and Lichenological Society (ABLS) was founded in 1898. Our organization is devoted to the scientific study of all aspects of the biology of bryophytes and lichen-forming fungi and is one of the nation’s oldest botanical organizations.”

ABRC – “Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center, a stock center that operates within the Center for Applied Plant Sciences (CAPS) at The Ohio State University (OSU). Our mission is to collect, preserve, amplify, and distribute seed, DNA, protein, and other resources of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana to the research community. Our primary funding comes from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Our collection has almost 1,000,000 stocks, which cover 97% of around 27,000 protein-coding genes in the Arabidopsis genome.”

ABS – American Begonia Society, journal: The Begonian

ABS – American Bonsai Society: “Founded in 1967, the American Bonsai Society is the pioneering national bonsai organization. As a non-profit corporation, our purpose is to promote knowledge of, and interest in, bonsai – and to serve as a national focal point for bonsai fanciers.”

ABS – American Boxwood Society: “The American Boxwood Society is a not-for-profit membership organization founded in 1961 and devoted to the appreciation, scientific understanding and propagation of the genus Buxus L.”

ABS – American Bryological Society

ACE – “Agriculture in Concert with the Environment (ACE), An EPA program, administered cooperatively with USDA’s Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, to fund research projects that reduce the risk of pollution from pesticides and soluble fertilizers.“ (Womach, 2005)

ACGA – “The Mission of the American Community Gardening Association is to build community by increasing and enhancing community gardening and greening across the United States and Canada. The American Community Gardening Association (ACGA) is a bi-national nonprofit membership organization of professionals, volunteers and supporters of community greening in urban and rural communities. The Association recognizes that community gardening improves people’s quality of life by providing a catalyst for neighborhood and community development, stimulating social interaction, encouraging self-reliance, beautifying neighborhoods, producing nutritious food, reducing family food budgets, conserving resources and creating opportunities for recreation, exercise, therapy and education. ACGA and its member organizations work to promote and support all aspects of community food and ornamental gardening, urban forestry, preservation and management of open space, and integrated planning and management of developing urban and rural lands.”

ACSESS – “The Alliance of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Societies (ACSESS) is an association of prominent international scientific societies headquartered in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. ACSESS was created by and is composed of the American Society of Agronomy (ASA, founded in 1907), the Crop Science Society of America (CSSA, founded in 1955), and the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA, founded in 1936). The ACSESS Digital Library is a complete collection of all content published by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. The Digital Library makes it possible to search, browse, research, comment on, and share all of our published literature in one convenient place. The Digital Library is a vital component in serving our mission and our membership by providing innovative, valuable resources for the betterment of our community, and our world. For more information, visit: www.myacsess.org”

ACPF – “The Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora (ACPF) is a group of plants that exist mainly on lakeshores and wetland habitats in Nova Scotia. Their populations are largely disjunct from other ACPF populations in Canada and several species have been listed under the Species At Risk Act (SARA). In 2010 MTRI, in partnership with the ACPF Recovery Team, Nova Scotia Nature Trust and Parks Canada, initiated a project to collect baseline data for the Species At Risk Act listed ACPF populations in southwest Nova Scotia, establish monitoring protocols and increase stewardship opportunities for landowners who live with ACPF.” ACPF is a project of Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute (MTRI)

ACS – American Conifer Society: The purpose of the ACS is to promote the use of conifers in the garden and landscape and to educate the public about their care and conservation.‘

ACSS – “The African Crop Science Society (ACSS) is a society for investigators, producers, business people and technicians around the world. The ACSS was established in 1993 with overall goal of promoting crop production and food security in the continent of Africa. Its headquarters are at Makerere University in Uganda.” (GPC website)

ACPFG – “The Australian Center for Plant Functional Genomics is one of the largest cereal crop genomics facilities in the field of abiotic stress tolerance in cereals, employing more than 80 research scientists and staff.” We conduct research in innovative applications of plant genomics technology to develop improved agricultural products. Operations are guided by a diverse management team.

AD – Award of Distinction, American Orchid Society. “Awarded once to a cross representing a worthy new direction in Breeding. The award is granted unanimously without scoring by the judging team assigned.”

ADF – Arbor Day Foundation: “We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees. Founded in 1972, the centennial of the first Arbor Day observance in the 19th century, the Foundation has grown to become the largest nonprofit membership organization dedicated to planting trees, with over one million members, supporters, and valued partners. The impact we make on our world is accomplished through our conservation and education programs.” (Acronym not used by the Foundation).

ADS – American Daffodil Society: “We are an internationally recognized non-profit association of individuals, families, organizations, and universities dedicated to the encouragement of widespread interest in daffodils.”

ADS – American Dahlia Society: “The American Dahlia Society (ADS) is currently working to sequence the dahlia genome. ADS is funding the DNA sequencing of the dahlia. This process determines the complete set of genes or genetic material in a cell or organism. In January 2017 the ADS donors met our first goal of $30,000 for the project. To date we have raised $37,000 from 50 donors from 17 states and Canada With these funds, ADS will be sequencing 6 species dahlias and dahlia Edna C plus one more modern dahlia.”

AFS – American Fern Society: “The American Fern Society is over 120 years old. With over 900 members worldwide, it is one of the largest international fern clubs in the world. It was established in 1893 with the objective of fostering interest in ferns and fern allies.”

AFS – American Fuchsia Society – website unavailable

AFT – American Farmland Trust: “The mission of American Farmland Trust is to save the land that sustains us by protecting farmland, promoting sound farming practices, and keeping farmers on the land. American Farmland Trust (AFT) began in 1980 after a small group of farmers and conservationists asked an important question: What will happen to the nation’s food supply if we continue to wastefully develop our best farm and ranch land? Peggy McGrath Rockefeller, the wife of philanthropist David Rockefeller, was one of AFT’s founding members. Peggy was a dedicated and accomplished farmer, raising purebred cattle on farms in Maine and upstate New York. Guided by Rockefeller, noted soil conservationist Norm Berg, California farmer Ralph Grossi, and others, AFT focused in the early years on pioneering programs around the country that use a powerful tool – conservation easements – to make the nation’s best farmland off limits to developers.”

AFVGA – “The Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers aim to promote, advance, and protect the growing, harvesting and marketing of fruits and vegetables. Our strategic goals are to: 1. Support family farms and local food systems through education and support services; 2.Participate in specialty crop policy and advocacy in the state/region/ nation; 3. Enhance marketing and promotion of Alabama specialty crops; 4. Build collaboration across industry and regional groups; 5. Create public value to keep the organization relevant in future.”

AgNIC – “The Agriculture Network Information Collaborative (AgNIC) is a voluntary alliance of members based on the concept of “centers of excellence”. The member institutions are dedicated to enhancing collective information and services among the members and their partners for all those seeking agricultural information over the Internet. By joining forces to enhance impact and deliver increasing access to information and expertise, it enables partner institutions to make the most of available resources and increase impact. Collectively the Alliance harnesses: More than 80 information and subject specialists; Over 60 topics covered comprehensively by partner institutions; Full-text and web-based resources; Participation from five countries with collaborative contributions from many more. Mission: AgNIC facilitates and participates in partnerships and cooperation among institutions and organizations world-wide that are committed to the identification, delivery and preservation of reliable, freely- available, evaluated, digital content and quality services for agriculture, food, and natural resources information.”

AGORA – “Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA)…, set up by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) together with major publishers, enables developing countries to gain access to an outstanding digital library collection in the fields of food, agriculture, environmental science ”

AGRICOLA – “AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access), a database produced by the National Agricultural Library (NAL), consists of two subsets of records. The first contains citations for journal articles that include abstracts. The second consists of bibliographic records describing monographs, serials, audiovisual materials and online content from around the world. AGRICOLA includes but is not limited to resources available in the library. The database contains 5,200,000+ records and includes printed works from as far back as the 15th century.”

AGRIS – “AGRIS (International System for Agricultural Science and Technology) is a global public domain database with more than 8 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and technology. It became operational in 1975 and The database is maintained by CIARD, and its content is provided by more than 150 participating institutions from 65 countries. The AGRIS Search system allows scientists, researchers and students to perform sophisticated searches using keywords from the AGROVOC thesaurus, specific journal titles or names of countries, institutions, and authors.” (Wikipedia, 2018)

AGROVOC – “AGROVOC (a portmanteau of agriculture and vocabulary) is a multilingual controlled vocabulary covering all areas of interest to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), including food, nutrition, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and the environment. The vocabulary consists of over 32,000 concepts with up to 40,000 terms in different languages (see SKOSMOS). It is a collaborative effort, edited by a community of experts and coordinated by FAO.

AGROVOC is made available by FAO as an RDF/SKOS-XL concept scheme and published as a linked data set aligned to 16 other vocabularies.”

AGS – American Gourd Society: “The American Gourd Society promotes interest in all activities relating to gourds: cultivation and artistic shape manipulation, historical uses, gourd show competition, craftwork, and artistic decoration.”

AHS – American Hemerocallis Society: “The American Hemerocallis Society, Inc. (AHS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1946. The AHS is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, and especially to promote, encourage, and foster the development and improvement of the genus Hemerocallis and public interest therein. The society’s membership includes over 6,000 avid gardeners and daylily enthusiasts, including life members, youth members and international members from 25 different countries.”

AHS – American Hibiscus Society: “The purpose of the American Hibiscus Society… is to encourage and promote the development and improvement of hibiscus and to collect, record and pass on information concerning hibiscus.”

AHS – American Horticultural Society: “Making America a nation of gardeners, a land of gardens. That’s our vision. Ambitious? Sure, but we don’t think it’s impossible. It’s what we’ve been doing for more than 90 years.”

AHS – “The American Hosta Society is a not-for-profit organization…, organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, and especially to promote, encourage, and foster the development of the genus Hosta 

AHS – “The American Hydrangea Society was formed in 1994 for people who love hydrangeas and want to “study and learn about the genus Hydrangea, its species and cultivars, as well as its culture, habits, hardiness, and performance.”

AHTA – “American Horticultural Therapy Association is a non-profit membership-driven organization whose mission is to promote and advance the profession of Horticultural Therapy as a therapeutic intervention and rehabilitative modality..”

AIRCA – Association of International Research Centers for Agriculture: “Transforming rural livelihoods and landscapes: sustainable improvements to incomes, food security and the environment. Vision: Healthy landscapes for improved livelihoods and food security. Mission: Putting research into use by strengthening capacities for sustainable improvements to incomes, food and nutrition security in healthy landscapes.

AICRNPC – All India Coordinated Research Network on Potential Crops: “Mandate – To find out new plant resources for food, fodder, fuel, energy and industrial uses; To identify/develop superior genotypes for different agro-climatic regions; To standardize the package of practices for cultivation of these crops.”

AIFSC – “Australian International Food Security Centre (AIFSC) (Australia) … is a non-profit organization that works to promote agricultural innovation and attract investment to agricultural development projects. Aiming to build capacity for farming initiatives worldwide, AIFSC focuses on achieving specific goals like improving nutrition, connecting researchers with industry, and enhancing supply chain systems to allow farmers to bring their products to market.”

AIPCP – Aquatic Invasive Plant Control Program, California: “The Aquatic Weed Control Program includes both floating and submersed aquatic vegetation. DBW (the Department of Boating and Waterways) uses an Integrated Pest Management strategy with the following components: Public information and education; Prevention; Pre- established action levels for chemical, biological and physical control; & Environmental monitoring. Since submersed and floating aquatic vegetation are well established in the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta, eradication may not be feasible, while controlling invasive growth is likely to lessen negative economic and biological impacts.

AIS – “The Mission of The American Iris Society is to organize and disseminate knowledge of the genus Iris, while fostering its preservation, enjoyment and continued development.”

AIS – “The American Ivy Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving the genus Hedera through education and promotion.”

AJB – “The American Journal of Botany (AJB), the flagship journal of the Botanical Society of America (BSA), publishes peer-reviewed, innovative, significant research of interest to a wide audience of plant scientists in all areas of plant biology (structure, function, development, diversity, genetics, evolution, systematics), all levels of organization (molecular to ecosystem), and all plant groups and allied organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, and lichens).

AM – Award of Merit, from American Orchid Society. “Awarded to orchid species or hybrids scoring 80 to 89 points inclusive on a 100- point scale.”

AMS – “Agricultural Marketing Service is a USDA agency that establishes standards for grades of cotton, tobacco, meat, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. AMS also operates inspection and grading services and market news services; provides supervisory administration for federal marketing orders; administers USDA ’ s Section 32 budget account (including commodity purchasing using Section 32 funds); oversees the National Organic Program; provides support for various farm marketing activities; and conducts research and analysis of transportation problems affecting agriculture. [www.ams.usda.gov].” (Womach, 2005)

ANPS – “The Alaska Native Plant Society (ANPS) is a non-profit organization dedicated to studying and conserving Alaska native plants. General membership meetings are open to the public and are held on the first Monday of every month from October through May.”

ANPS – Arkansas Native Plant Society: “The Society promotes 1) the preservation, conservation, study, and enjoyment of the native plants of Arkansas, 2) the education of the public regarding the value of native plants and their habitats, and 3) the publication of related information.”

ANR – University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources: “ANR envisions a thriving California in 2025 where healthy people and communities, healthy food systems, and healthy environments are strengthened by a close partnership between the University of California and its research and extension programs and the people of the state. The University remains connected and committed to the people of California, who enjoy a high quality of life, a healthy environment, and economic success in a global economy.”

AOS – “To promote the appreciation of orchids, the American Orchid Society delivers the most up-to-date, accurate, educational information about orchid culture and sponsors research and conservation initiatives to improve the outlook for orchids around the globe.”

APG – Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. from Wikipedia: refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.”

APGA – American Public Garden Association

APHIS – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (a service of the USDA)

APIS – a commercial aquatic plant site mimicking APIRS APIRS – (Florida) The Aquatic and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) includes more than 90,000 annotated citations to peer-reviewed and gray literature and reports, with aquatic, wetland and natural area invasive plants as the focus. Annotations include categories, keywords and plant names derived by the APIRS reader/cataloger as opposed to standard library cataloging or copies of abstracts. The database is used by researchers, natural resource managers, government agencies, companies, graduate students and private groups and individuals. Users may request specific searches of the database by contacting the database manager, or they may search it themselves online. The FWC Invasive Plant Management Section is the primary sponsor of the APIRS program. APIRS was conceived of and developed by Victor Ramey in the early 1980s.”

APPPC – Asia & Pacific Plant Protection Commission (see also, EPPO)

APS – “… the American Penstemon Society, an organization founded in 1946 to study and adapt penstemons to gardens. We are an organization of over 300 members worldwide and invite you to visit our site often.”

APS – “The American Peony Society was established in 1903 to promote cultivated peonies and foster studies to improve its worth as a garden plant the APS has served as the International Cultivar Registration Authority for peonies since 1974.”

APS – “The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is the premier scientific society dedicated to high-quality, innovative plant pathology research. For more than a century, members of APS have been making and sharing significant breakthroughs, both for the science and society. APS is driven by a distinctive community of scientists, whose energy and commitment ensure the global advancement of this critical science.”

APS – “The American Pomological Society is the oldest fruit organization in North America, founded by Marshall P. Wilder in 1848 to foster the science and practice of fruit production and variety development.”

APS – ‘The American Primrose, Primula, and Auricula Society’, commonly referred to as ‘The American Primrose Society’ … is an international group of Primula enthusiasts Some members are academics with special expertise in the genus Primula; some are collectors and hybridizers; others are general gardeners who are fascinated by the wide variety of primulas available. With more than 450 species ranging from tiny European alpines to the stately ‘candelabras’ of Asia, there is a primula for everyone. “

APWG – “The Alien Plant Working Group (APWG) provides information on the threat and impacts of invasive alien plants to the native flora, fauna, and natural ecosystems of the United States. Learn more at the Weeds Gone Wild website; check out their invasive plant fact sheets.” See BGCI

AQ – Award of Quality, American Orchid Society. “Awarded once to a cross exhibited by a single individual as a group of not less than 12 plants or inflorescences of different clones of a hybrid or cultivated species. At least one of the inflorescences must receive a flower quality award and the overall quality of the group must be an improvement over the former type.”

AQI – “Agricultural Quarantine Inspection — A program of USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), part of which was transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296). As of March 1, 2003, roughly 2,500 AQI border inspection personnel are part of the DHS Border and Transportation Security directorate. AQI inspects incoming passengers, luggage, and cargo at U.S. ports of entry in order to protect U.S. agriculture from foreign animal and plant pests and diseases that may enter by unintentional or intentional means. The plant and animal quarantine function of AQI remains in APHIS.” (Womach, 2005)

ARIS – “United States Department of Agriculture computer system, which may be accessed and used only for official Government business (or as otherwise permitted by regulation) by authorized personnel.

ARS – “Agricultural Research Service — A USDA agency employing federal scientists to conduct agricultural research at more than 100 field locations in the United States, U.S. insular areas (e.g., Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands), and several foreign countries. ARS scientists conduct basic, applied, and developmental research in the following fields: livestock; plants; soil, water and air quality; energy; food safety and quality; nutrition; food processing, storage, and distribution efficiency; non-food agricultural products; and international development. [www.ars.usda.gov].“ (Womach, 2005)

ARS – “The American Rhododendron Society is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to encourage interest in and to disseminate information about the genus Rhododendron. Members’ experience ranges from novice to expert. Society activities include public education, plant sales, flower shows, seed exchanges, and scientific research.”

ARS – “The American Rose Society exists to promote the culture, preservation and appreciation of the Rose and to improve its standard of excellence for all people, through education and research.”

ASA – “A century ago, a group of individuals interested in agronomy met in Chicago on Dec. 31, 1907, for the purpose of organizing the American Society of Agronomy to “increase the dissemination of knowledge concerning soils and crops and the conditions affecting them.”

ASA – “The Azalea Society (of America) offers membership to anyone with an interest in azaleas, from home gardeners, collectors and students to plant professionals. The Azalean, our quarterly journal, has timely informative articles about azalea culture, hybridizing, propagation, garden design, new introductions and chapter activities.

ASBA – American Society of Botanical Artists: Our Mission: “To provide a thriving, interactive community dedicated to perpetuating the tradition and contemporary practice of botanical art. Our Vision: Botanical art will be considered a significant, relevant, and respected contributor to 21st century art, recognized for its unique power to educate, promote ecological awareness and enrich our lives.“

ASBS – Australasian Systematic Botany Society: “The Australasian Systematic Botany Society (ASBS) is an incorporated association of over 300 people with professional or amateur interest in botany. The object of the Society is to promote the study of plant systematics. The first general meeting of the Society was held in Perth, Western Australia, on the 17 August, 1973. It a General Meeting of the membership on 15 March 2011, it was resolved that the name of ASBS be changed from “Australian Systematic Botany Society Inc.” to “Australasian Systematic Botany Society Inc”.

ASCFG – “The Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers was created to educate, unite, and support commercial cut flower growers. It does this by providing production and marketing information; connecting members through events and communications; supporting floriculture research; and encouraging the purchase and use of locally grown flowers by the public. Its mission is to help growers produce high- quality floral material, and to foster and promote the local availability of that product.”

ASP – American Society of Pharmacognosy: “ Discovering Nature’s molecular potential – Established in 1959, the members are committed to promote and develop the science of pharmacognosy and all aspects of those sciences related to natural products.”

ASP – “The Asian Society of Pharmacognosy is a professional Society devoted to promoting education, research and dissemination of information about pharmacognosy (Materia Medica), which encompasses the study of medicinal plants used in medical practice (official and alternative).”

ASPB – American Society of Plant Biologists: “ASPB is a professional society devoted to the advancement of the plant sciences.” ASPB publishes The Plant Cell and Plant Physiology.

ASPS – “The Australian Society of Plant Scientists (ASPS) is an incorporated society that promotes plant science in Australia, and provides professional contact within its community of teachers and researchers in the plant sciences.” (from the GPC website)

ASPT – American Society of Plant Taxonomists “promotes research and teaching of taxonomy, systematics, and phylogeny of vascular and nonvascular plants. Organized in 1935, the Society has a membership of over 1100, The Society publishes two journals. Systematic Botany and Systematic Botany Monographs, provides funding for research and travel grants, and conducts scientific meetings each summer.”

ATRIUM – (Archaic) “The Botanical Research Institute of Texas developed Atrium to manage the large volume of data generated through the research activity of the Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program (AABP) with funding primarily from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Atrium is a technology platform for revolutionizing biodiversity information management by enabling researchers and organizations to share, synthesize, manage and publish biodiversity data in a collaborative, online environment. Atrium provides a broad range of tools for research organizations as well as an unparalleled, open-source framework based on industry standards which facilitates the development of powerful applications and tools for the biodiversity community.”

AVS – “The American Violet Society (AVS), … connections extend to key international producers, researchers and hundreds of violet fanciers worldwide, and welcomes membership from around the world… The main nexus for the AVS is the Violet Gazette a publication geared to keeping “violeteers” fully informed about Violets and Violas and Pansies. It features articles on gardening tips, historical / literary references, violet lore, latest medicinal and botanical research, and availability in the marketplace.”

AVRDC – “The World Vegetable Center, previously known as the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, is an international, nonprofit institute for vegetable research and development. It was “founded in 1971 in Shanhua, southern Taiwan, by the Asian Development Bank, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United States and Vietnam.” AVRDC is an international non-profit organization dedicated to reducing poverty and malnutrition in the developing world by increasing agricultural production and access to a variety of vegetables, providing essential micronutrients for populations in need.”

AVSA – African Violet Society of America: ” AVSA is the connecting place for people around the globe whose common interest is one amazing plant – the African violet… As a non-profit, educational organization, AVSA is dedicated to helping African violet enthusiasts successfully grow, show, propagate, and hybridize these beautiful plants.”

AWARD – “African Women in Agricultural Research and Development. AWARD envisions a robust, resilient, and gender responsive agricultural innovation system working to drive prosperity and food and nutrition security for Africa. We invest in African scientists and institutions so that they can deliver innovative, sustainable, gender- responsive agricultural research and development for the continent.”

AWB – “Australian Wheat Board (A WB) — A statutory marketing agency that handles Australia’ s domestic marketing of wheat and export marketings of wheat and flour. Under the Australian system, farmers take their wheat to elevators designated as official handling agents for the AWB. Following delivery, farmers receive an initial payment, then over a period of time (which can be over a year) they receive additional payments until the full price has been paid. AWB became a grower-owned and controlled company operating under Australian corporation laws on July 1, 1999, and is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange.“ (Womach, 2005)

AWS – “The purpose of the Alabama Wildflower Society is to enjoy the fellowship of shared interest in native plants and to promote the knowledge, appreciation, and use of native plants. We strive to preserve areas of significant interest because of their native flora. To promote interest in young people in this endeavor, we give several scholarships each year to deserving students.”

AZNPS – “The Arizona Native Plant Society is a nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona’s native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats.”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

A – in floral formulae: Androecium (collective term for stamens)

ad t. – ad tabulam, indicates one should inspect the published plate (illustration)

ACP – Asian Citrus Psyllid (search for more info on Huanglongbing, HLB, Greening Disease on Citrus)

ADAM – “ADAM Principles: Aliveness Diversity Aeration Moisture” An Australian program of permaculture based on soil development: living components, diverse components, turning, and water See: Kimbriki Environmental Enterprises

aff. – affinity, used with plant specimens, very similar to a known species, perhaps different.

AE – Azolla Event: the concept that a melting of the Arctic (45+ million years BP) gave rise to a freshwater layer that supported an ocean of Azolla, triggering climate change and depositing a major resource of oil and gas.

AF – Analog Forestry: “an approach to ecosystem restoration that considers the process of forest formation and the functioning of forest services to be critical in establishing a sustainable ecosystem characterised by a high biodiversity to biomass ratio. Design is produced through a synthesis of traditional and scientific knowledge. It seeks to optimise the productive potential of the design rather than maximise the production of one crop and to maximise ecosystem services by increasing the volumetric mass of the photosynthetic component.” (Wikipedia, March 2018)

ANDEPT – soil classification – a kind of Inceptisol

ANITA grade – acronym – “ANITA stands for Amborella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales, Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya.[2] Some authors have shortened this to ANA-grade for the three orders, Amborellales, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales, since the order I lliciales was reduced to the family Illiciaceae and placed, along with the family Trimeniaceae, within the Austrobaileyales.” (Wikipedia, 2018)

AP – Adventitious Presence: “The accidental or unintentional appearance of foreign material in a product. In the case of agriculture, usually this happens in the production, harvesting, storage, and marketing of grains, seeds, or food products, for example. Grain and seed companies argue that virtually all shipments contain some type and level of adventitious material, such as some weed material in a bin of soybeans or wheat. Generally, buyers recognize that some level of adventitious material is acceptable and foreign material limits are specified in purchase contracts. AP is now a key issue in the debate over regulation of biotechnology. As more and more crops and acres are devoted to genetically engineered (GE) varieties, it becomes increasingly difficult to segregate these from GE-free varieties, which some buyers and countries demand. The European Union is considering a proposal to require GE labeling of any food or feed product that contains more than 0.5% of material derived from genetically modified organisms.” (Womach, 2005)

  • AQUALF – soil classification – a kind of Alfisol
  • AQUENT – soil classification – a kind of Entisol
  • AQUEPT – soil classification – a kind of Inceptisol
  • AQUOD – soil classification – a kind of Spodosol
  • AQUULT – soil classification – a kind of Ultisol
  • ARGID – soil classification – a kind of Aridisol

ASQ – “Allowable Sale Quantity (ASQ) — The maximum quantity of timber that may be sold from national forest lands under a Forest Service forest plan for a period of ten years.“ (Womach, 2005)

AST – Abbreviation for Assyrian Sacred Tree, a long-running discussion and generations of study that attempt to resolve origins and meaning of the “enigmatic” tree symbol (often considered to be based on the Date Palm) in Assyrian imagery. (Mariana Giovino, 2007. The Assyrian Sacred Tree – A History of Interpretations, Academic Press Fribourg/Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Göttingen, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis #230, ISBN 978-3-525-53028-3, 242 pp + figures & other

ASW – Available Soil Water

ATDN – Amazon Tree Diversity Network

ATV – A Tree Viewer: Software for Phylogenetic Tree Visualization: “Allows the display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees.

ATV allows visualization of very large trees (>500 sequences). The user can choose which data elements to display on the tree. It can display any subtree of the tree, zoom in or out, or collapse any subtree into a single node. The software can be utilized both as a standalone application and as an applet in a web browser.”

Auth. – Author

AVA – American (Approved) Viticultural Area – “a designated wine grape-growing region in the United States distinguishable by geographic features, with boundaries defined by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) of the United States Department of the Treasury.”

AWI – Annual Woody Increment.

AWP – “Adjusted world price — As part of the upland cotton and the rice marketing assistance loan programs, USDA calculates and publishes, on a weekly basis, what is known as the adjusted world price (AWP). The AWP is the prevailing world price for upland cotton or rice, adjusted to account for U.S. quality and location. Producers who have taken out USDA marketing assistance loans may choose to repay them at either the lesser of the established loan rate, plus interest, or the announced AWP for that week. The AWP for cotton also is used for determining Step 2 payments.” (Womack, 2005)

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • ABB – Abolbodaceae – monocot
  • ABL – Amborellaceae – monocot
  • ACA – Acanthaceae – dicot
  • ACE – Aceraceae – dicot
  • ACH – Achariaceae – dicot
  • ACO – Acoraceae – monocot
  • ACP – Actiniopteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • ACT – Actinidiaceae – dicot
  • ADI – Adiantaceae – pteridophyte
  • ADX – Adoxaceae – dicot
  • AES – Aesculaceae – dicot
  • AEX – Aextoxicaceae – dicot
  • AGA – Agavaceae – monocot
  • AGD – Agdestidaceae – dicot
  • AHT – Achatocarpaceae – dicot
  • AIZ – Aizoaceae – dicot
  • AKA – Akaniaceae – dicot
  • ALG – Alangiaceae – dicot
  • ALI – Alismataceae – monocot
  • ALL – Alliaceae – monocot
  • ALO* – Aloaceae – monocot
  • ALS – Alstroemeriaceae – monocot
  • ALT – Altingiaceae – dicot
  • ALZ** – Alzateaceae – dicot
  • AMA – Amaranthaceae – dicot
  • AMB – Ambrosiaceae – dicot
  • AML – Amaryllidaceae – monocot
  • AMO – Anomochloaceae – monocot
  • AMY – Amygdalaceae – dicot
  • ANA – Anacardiaceae – dicot
  • ANC – Ancistrocladaceae – dicot
  • AND – Androstachydaceae – dicot
  • ANG – Angiopteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • ANM – Anemiaceae – pteridophyte
  • ANM** – Anemarrhenaceae – monocot
  • ANN – Annonaceae – dicot
  • ANR – Anarthriaceae – monocot
  • ANS – Anisophylleaceae – dicot
  • ANT – Antoniaceae – dicot
  • ANT** – Anthericaceae – monocot
  • APE – Asteropeiaceae – dicot
  • APG – Aponogetonaceae – monocot
  • APH – Aphyllanthaceae – monocot
  • API – Apiaceae – dicot
  • APL – Aphloiaceae – dicot
  • APO – Apocynaceae – dicot
  • APS – Apostasiaceae – monocot
  • APT – Aptandraceae – dicot
  • AQF – Aquifoliaceae – dicot
  • ARA – Araceae – monocot
  • ARD** – Aralidiaceae – dicot
  • ARE – Arecaceae – monocot
  • ARG** – Argophyllaceae – dicot
  • ARL – Araliaceae – dicot
  • ARU – Araucariaceae – gymnosperm
  • ASC – Asclepiadaceae – dicot
  • ASD – Aspidiaceae – pteridophyte
  • ASG – Asparagaceae – monocot
  • ASL – Aspleniaceae – pteridophyte
  • ASM – Alseuosmiaceae – dicot
  • ASN – Alsinaceae – dicot
  • ASP** – Asphodelaceae – monocot
  • ASR – Asteranthaceae – dicot
  • AST – Asteraceae – dicot
  • ATL** – Asteliaceae – monocot
  • ATS – Atherospermataceae – dicot
  • ATY – Athyriaceae – pteridophyte
  • AUC** – Aucubaceae – dicot
  • AUS – Austrobaileyaceae – dicot
  • AVI – Avicenniaceae – dicot
  • AVR – Averrhoaceae – dicot
  • AZL – Azollaceae – pteridophyte

Genes, Control, Molecules, Plant Viruses, & Pathways…

A – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Alanine ABA – Abscisic Acid

ABC & ABCE – models – ABI/ABI – genes & proteins – ABP- Actin Binding Protein

ACC – compound – see also ACO, ACS ACF

ACMV – African cassava mosaic virus ACO – compound

ACP – compound – Acyl carrier protein ACA – compound – see also ACC

ADEPT – Allele Discovery of Economic Pine Traits: “Summary: The goal of this project is to develop an infrastructure for identifying alleles at candidate gene loci that can be used to greatly accelerate loblolly pine tree improvement. If selection could be based directly on the alleles in superior trees, the rate of genetic improvement could be accelerated. “(Neale Lab) ALLELE DISCOVERY FOR GENES CONTROLLING ECONOMIC TRAITS IN LOBLOLLY PINE. 2001-2005 Project No. CA-D*-XXX-6955-CG Proposal No2001-04403 Project Closed….

AG – Anastamosis Groups – Wikipedia: “An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams. … Anastomoses that are abnormal, whether congenital or acquired, are often called fistulas.” Used particularly in studies of soil symbiotic relationships.

AG/AGAMOUS – gene AHK – receptor/pathway

AHP – compound – Histidine phosphor-relay protein AIA – Artocarpus integrifolia agglutinin – a lectin AKT

Al – element – Aluminum

Ala – abbreviation for the amino acid Alanine

AM – Antirrhinum majus, as referenced in protein, gene, viral attribution, i.e. AmMYBMx


APETALA – gene

AGO – compound – Argonaute proteins

APAF – Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor

Arg – abbreviation for the amino acid Arginine ARPV – Apricot Ring Pox Virus

Asn – abbreviation for the amino acid Asparagine

Asp – abbreviation for the Aspartic acid (one of the essential amino acids)

ASR – “Soybean Rust — Asian soybean rust (ASR) is a harmful fungal disease that can infect and reproduce on over 90 plant species, most notably soybeans. Wind-borne spores can spread rapidly and the disease can reduce soybean yields by 10-80% in infected areas. The pathogen has been most destructive in Asia, Africa, Australia, and recently (2002) South America. ASR is not known to occur in the continental Unite States; however,its airborne arrival by upper atmosphere wind currents is expected within the next few years. Once established, eradication is unlikely because the pathogen can infect and reproduce on so many plant species. As a result, the most effective treatment is thought to be the development and use of resistant varieties. However, no commercial soybean cultivar is resistant to or tolerant of ASR.” (Womach 2005)

AT – Arabidopsis thaliana

At – Arabidopsis thaliana, as referenced in protein, gene, viral attribution, i.e. AtHK, AtNAP


Au – Aucuba, as referenced in protein, gene, viral attribution, i.r. AuBVV, Aucuba Bacilliform Virus

AUC – Average Unit Cell AURORA


AXR – pathway


  • A – Arnold Arboretum Herbarium Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • A, FH, GH – Harvard University Herbaria Harvard University Cambridge Massachusetts
  • AA – Ministry of Science, Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan
  • AAH – Arnold Arboretum Herbarium, Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts
  • AAS – British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England, UK
  • AAU – University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
  • ABD – University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK ABH – Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain
  • ABL – Adviesbureau voor Bryologie en Lichenologie Soest, Netherlands
  • ABSH – Southern Illinois University Hepatic Herbarium, Carbondale, Illinois
  • ABSM – Moss Herbarium, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • AC – Amherst College Herbarium, Amherst, Massachusetts
  • ACAD – E.C. Smith Herbarium, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia
  • AD – State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide, Austrlia
  • ADR – Adrian College Herbarium, Adrian, Michigan
  • ADRZ – Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia
  • AGUAT, BIGU, USCG – University of San Carlos of Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala
  • AHMA – Agharkar Research Institute Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • AHS – Austin High School Herbarium, Austin, Texas
  • AHUC – UC Davis Center for Plant Diversity, Davis, California
  • AIX – Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle d’Aix-en-Provence, Aix-en- Provence, France
  • AK – Auckland War Memorial Museum New Zealand; Auckland
  • AL – University of Algiers, Université d’Alger, Algiers, Algeria
  • ALA – University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska
  • ALAM – Adams State College Herbarium, Alamosa, Colorado
  • ALBC – Albion College Herbarium, Albion, Michigan
  • ALBU – Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Herbarium, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • ALMA – Alma College Herbarium, Alma, Michigan ALTA – University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
  • ALTB – Altai State University, South-Siberian Botanical Garden, Barnaul, Russia
  • ALU – Mohr Herbarium, Alabama Museum of Natural History Tuscaloosa, Alabama
  • AMAZ – Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana, Iquitos, Peru
  • AMD – L, U, WAG Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland) Netherlands; Leiden
  • AMES – Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • AMNH – Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Akureyri Division, Akureyri, Iceland
  • ANA – Orange County Department of Agriculture Herbarium, Anaheim, California
  • ANG – Muséum des sciences naturelles d’Angers, Arboretum Gaston Allard, Université Catholiques de l’Ouest, Angers, France
  • ANK – Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey
  • ANSP – Diatom Herbarium Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia Pennsylvania
  • APCR – Arkansas Tech University Herbarium, Russellville, Arkansas
  • APSC – Austin Peay State University Herbarium, Clarksville ,Tennessee
  • AQC – Aquinas College Herbarium, Grand Rapids, Michigan
  • ARAN – Alto de Zorroaga. Donostia-San Sebastián Spain
  • ARCH – Archbold Biological Station Herbarium, Lake Placid, Florida
  • ARIZ – University of Arizona Herbarium University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona
  • ARSEF – USDA-ARS Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungal Cultures,U.S. Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, USDA/ARS, Ithaca, New York
  • ASC – Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona
  • ASSAM – Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
  • ASTC – Stephen F. Austin State University Herbarium, Nacogdoches, Texas
  • ASU – Arizona State University Lichen & Vascular Plant Herbarium, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
  • ASUF – Rocky Mountain Research Station Herbarium, USDA Forest Service, Flagstaff, Arizona
  • ATCC – American Type Culture Collection Culture Collection, Manassas, Virginia
  • ATH – Goulandris Natural History Museum, Kifissia, Greece
  • ATHU – National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • AUA – John D. Freeman Herbarium, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
  • AUB – Andrews University Herbarium, Berrien Springs, Michigan
  • AUG – Augustana College Herbarium, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
  • AUT Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Autun, France
  • AV – Muséum Requien France; Avignon
  • AZUS – Citrus College Herbarium, Glendora, California


Associations, Authorities, Organizations & Publications…

BAEE – “Botanical Artists for Education & the Environment (BAEE) is a nonprofit organization formed in 2011 by botanical artists in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. We want to inspire our artists to paint regularly and to create a means to showcase their work. At the suggestion and with the encouragement of our teacher and mentor, Anne-Marie Evans, BAEE artists embarked on an ambitious project in 2011: to publish a book of plants native to the mid Atlantic.”

BAGSC – “The Botanical Artists Guild of Southern California (BAGSC) is a chapter of the American Society of Botanical Artists, and is dedicated to encouraging the development of botanical art and the promotion of public awareness of this artistic tradition. We strive to illustrate the diversity of plant life, as well as bring attention to those species and ecosystems which are imperiled. Guild members are committed to improving their artistry and technical abilities. The Guild supports and sponsors workshops with local experts and visiting lecturers in areas such as drawing and painting botanical subjects, botany, calligraphy, and resources.”

BBGS – Bellvue Botanical Garden Society (not an Herbarium Acronym)

BBGS (See also BBGS-USA) – Biblical Botanical Gardens Society – A somewhat nebulous international organization. The US branch is centered on the outreach of Dr. Ed Bez, of Conyers, Georgia.

BBS – “The British Bryological Society exists to promote the study of mosses and liverworts. With a full programme of field meetings, a paper reading meeting, recording and research projects, an international academic journal and a lively membership magazine there is something for everyone interested in learning about bryophytes.”

BBSRC – The Biotechnology and Biosciences Research Council “is part of UK Research and Innovation, a new body which works in partnership with universities, research organisations, businesses, charities, and government to create the best possible environment for research and innovation to flourish. We aim to maximise the contribution of each of our component parts, working individually and collectively. We work with our many partners to benefit everyone through knowledge, talent and ideas.” (2019, BBSRC website)

BCAP – “Botanical Capacity Assessment Project (BCAP): completed in 2010, this project assessed current and future botanical capacity in the United States with the goal of understanding the resources we currently have to conserve and manage native plant species and habitat, identifying gaps in capacity, and highlighting opportunities to fill gaps in the future. Learn more and download a free final report at the BCAP website.” See also BGCI

BCI – Barro Colorado Island. See STRI

BCFN – “Barilla Center for Food & Nutrition (Italy) works to promote science and research for combating hunger and malnutrition worldwide. “

BCW – “The Mission of the Botanical Club of Wisconsin: To promote the preservation of native plants through restoration projects, natural area identification, and rare plant protection; To educate the public as to the value of Wisconsin’s plants and the natural communities in which they grow; To foster research on the life history and biology of members of our native flora; [and] To provide a means for fellowship and information exchange among Wisconsin’s plant enthusiasts.”

BES – “We are the British Ecological Society: the oldest ecological society in the world. We were established in 1913 and we have been fostering the science of ecology ever since. We have 6,400 members around the world and bring people together across regional, national and global scales to advance ecological science. Membership is open to anyone, anywhere.”

BFVEA – “The BFVEA is a friendly association which was established in 1998 to support and serve the best interests of all practitioners of flower and vibrational essence therapy as well as providing an information resource for the general public. In 2013 it helped form the essence therapy lead body – the Confederation of Registered Essence Practitioners (www.corep.net) – which now serves as the knowledge base for essence practice in the UK. The BFVEA is supported by well known essence enthusiasts such as our Lifetime Presidents Dr. Andrew Tresidder and the actor Martin Shaw.“

BGCI – ”Botanic Gardens Conservation International is a membership organisation representing a network of 500 botanic gardens in more than 100 countries, including the largest and most influential gardens in the sector. BGCI is the largest plant conservation network in the world, and aims to collect, conserve, characterise and cultivate samples from all of the world’s plants as an insurance policy against their extinction in the wild and as a source of plant material for human innovation, adaptation and resilience. ¶The BGCI network of botanic gardens includes: globally significant ex situ collections, covering approximately a third of known plant diversity; world class seed banks, glass houses and tissue culture infrastructures, and; technical knowledge networks covering all aspects of plant conservation policy, practice and education. BGCI is in a prime position to promote an efficient, cost-effective and rational approach to plant conservation in botanic gardens. We do this in four ways by: 1 Leading and advocacy, promoting the role of botanic gardens to policymakers and funders in delivering the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.; 2 Leading innovative and strategic projects achieving outcomes in plant conservation policy, practice and education; 3 Co-ordinating efforts and building plant conservation capacity in botanic gardens and broader society; 4 Providing funding.”

BHL – “The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) is a consortium of natural history and botanical libraries that cooperate to digitize the legacy literature of biodiversity held in their collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.” The BHL consortium works with the international taxonomic community, rights holders, and other interested parties to ensure that this biodiversity heritage is made available to a global audience through open access principles. In partnership with the Internet Archive and through local digitization efforts, the BHL has digitized millions of pages of taxonomic literature, representing over 120,000 titles and over 200,000 volumes.”

BIEN – “the Botanical Information and Ecology Network is a network of ecologists, botanists, and computer scientists working together to document global patterns of plant diversity, function and distribution. Here you will find access to, for all plant species in the New World, (i) geo-referenced plant observations from herbarium, plot, and trait records; (ii) vegetation and plot inventories; (iii) species geographic distribution maps; (iv) plant traits; (v) a species-level phylogeny for all plants in the New World; and (vi) cross-continent, continent, and country-level species lists BIEN is an NCEAS Working Group. Ongoing development of BIEN cyberinfrastructure is also supported by the US National Science Foundation through the iPlant Collaborative or Cyverse.” (See also NSR)

BISCOT – “Botanical Images Scotia (BISCOT) is a juried botanical art exhibition which takes place in Edinburgh, Scotland every year. It is an international exhibition which over the years has welcomed some of the best botanical artists from around the world. ¶Working together, BISCOT, The Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society and The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh provide an opportunity for botanical artists and illustrators to exhibit at two locations in Edinburgh – Gardening Scotland and the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.”

BLM – Bureau of Land Management

BPS – The British Pteridological Society: “The Objects of the Society are to promote all aspects of pteridology by encouraging the appreciation, conservation, cultivation and scientific study of ferns, horsetails, clubmosses and quillworts through publications, meetings, the provision of grants and other appropriate means.”

BSA – Founded in 1893, the Botanical Society of America (BSA) is a “not-for-profit” 501 (c) (3) membership society whose mission is to: promote botany, the field of basic science dealing with the study and inquiry into the form, function, development, diversity, reproduction, evolution, and uses of plants and their interactions within the biosphere. (BSA website) The BSA publishes the AJB (American Journal of Botany)”

BSBI – “The Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland is for everyone who cares about the wild plants of Britain and Ireland. Since 1836, we’ve been promoting the study, understanding and enjoyment of British and Irish botany. We support all botanists – beginner or expert, amateur or professional – as they identify, record and map what grows where: our data and knowledge underpin the conservation of the British and Irish flora.”

BSC – “The Botanical Society of China (BSC) serves as the national organization for botany and plant research in China. It aims to promote research and education of all areas of plant science, to encourage academic exchange between different disciplines, to enhance the public awareness of plant diversity and its investigations, as well as to foster and strength the communication and co-operation between Chinese scientists and their foreign counterparts.” (from the GPC website)

BSI – Bromeliad Society International. “The purposes of this society are to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of bromeliads, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world.”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

B – in floral formulae, for bracts

bf- board foot: “A measure for lumber, equal to a 1-inch thick board that is 12 inches wide and 1 foot long in nominal dimensions (a 2×6, for example, is less than 2 inches thick and 6 inches wide, but a 1-foot long 2×6 is still counted as 1 board foot); typically reported in thousands of board feet (mbf). Also used to estimate the volume of lumber that can be produced from logs and standing trees.“ (Womach, 2005)

bbf – billion board feet

BGAB – Blue-green Algal Blooms BNF – Biological Nitrogen Fixation

BORALF – soil classification – a kind of Alfisol BOROLL – soil classification – a kind of Mollisol

BROW / BROWS – Barley, Rye, Oats, Wheat, Spelt. A dietary acronym, spelling out the grains that harbor some form of gluten.

Bt – in floral formulae, for bracteoles

Bt – in pathology/pesticides, Bacillus thur

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • BAS – Basellaceae – dicot
  • BAT – Bataceae – dicot
  • BAU – Baueraceae – dicot
  • BBD** – Berberidopsidaceae – dicot
  • BBS – Biebersteiniaceae – dicot
  • BBU – Barbeuiaceae – dicot
  • BCL – Barclayaceae – dicot
  • BEG – Begoniaceae – dicot
  • BEH** – Behniaceae – monocot
  • BER – Berberidaceae – dicot
  • BET – Betulaceae – dicot
  • BIG – Bignoniaceae – dicot
  • BIS – Bischofiaceae – dicot
  • BIX – Bixaceae – dicot
  • BLA** – Blandfordiaceae – monocot
  • BLE – Blechnaceae – pteridophyte
  • BLN – Balanopaceae – dicotBLS – Balsaminaceae – dicot
  • BLT – Balanitaceae – dicot
  • BML – Bromeliaceae – monocot
  • BMN – Burmanniaceae – monocot
  • BNI – Bruniaceae – dicot
  • BNL – Brunelliaceae – dicot
  • BNN – Brunoniaceae – dicot
  • BNN** – Bonnetiaceae – dicot
  • BNP – Balanophoraceae – dicot
  • BOM – Bombacaceae – dicot
  • BOR – Boraginaceae – dicot
  • BOW* – Boweniaceae – gymnosperm
  • BPC – Blepharocaryaceae – dicot
  • BRA – Brassicaceae – dicot
  • BRB – Barbeyaceae – dicot
  • BRL – Boerlagellaceae – dicot
  • BRR – Barringtoniaceae – dicot
  • BRS – Burseraceae – dicot
  • BRT – Bretschneideraceae – dicot
  • BRX – Brexiaceae – dicot
  • BRY** – Boryaceae – monocot
  • BTR – Botrychiaceae – pteridophyte
  • BUD – Buddlejaceae – dicot
  • BUT – Butomaceae – monocot
  • BUX – Buxaceae – dicot
  • BYB – Byblidaceae – dicot
  • BYT – Byttneriaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, Diseases, & Pathways…

B – Boron

BAC – Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries


BBD – Beech Bark Disease

Bc – Boea crassifolia, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc.,

BcMYB1 BELL – factor –

BER – Blossom End Rot: “Blossom End Rot (BER) in Tomatoes, Carolyn Male, Jul 27, 2001 3:08 pm… (quoted from WebGrower.com): Blossom End Rot (BER) is one of the most common tomato problems seen in the early part of the season. It is a physiological condition, not a disease caused by a fungus, a bacterium or a virus. Therefore it cannot be treated, and is very difficult, if not impossible, to prevent. BER has nothing to do with the blossoms, it refers to the fact that at the end of the tomato opposite the place where the tomato is attached to the stem, called the stem end, is the bottom of the tomato, which is called the blossom end. You often can see remnants of the blossom attached to that end as the tomato forms. At the blossom end one sees a flattened area that looks leathery and initially brown and then black, as the fruit rots.”

BES – factor

BHA – Butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant used to retard rancidity in foods with fat content, listed as carcinogenic in California.

BHT – Butylated hydroxytoluene, also dibutylhydroxytoluene, an antioxidant used as a preservative in many products, from bread to embalming fluids.

BIM – factor

BNA – Brasil Nut Albumen: (Ismail Cakmak & Ross M. Welch, November 25, 2009, EOLSS Publications, Impacts of Agriculture on Human Health and Nutrition, Vol II) “BNA, which was first used for engineering high methionine grain legumes, turned out to be an allergen. Although it was known that a small percentage of individuals reacts allergically when eating Brazil nut, the nuts’ allergenic factor was unknown. It became evident that the methionine-rich BNA is one of the strongest allergens in Brazil nut BNA was withdrawn from the list of methionine donor proteins for genetic engineering This cases strongly sensitized the public to genetically engineered feed and food. ”

BZR – factor



Bt – abbreviation – Bacillus thuringiensis



  • B – Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  • BAA, BAF – Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • BAB – Instituto Nacional de TecnologÌa Agropecuaria Argentina, Buenos Aires
  • BAK Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan
  • BAS, BASBG – Universität Basel Basel Switzerland
  • BAYLU – Baylor University Herbarium, Waco, Texas
  • BBG – Birmingham Botanical Gardens Herbarium, Birmingham, Alabama
  • BC – Institut Botànic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  • BCN – Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  • BDI – Putnam Museum of History and Natural Science Herbarium, Davenport, Iowa
  • BDWR – Bridgewater College Herbarium, Bridgewater, Virginia
  • BEDF – New England Wild Flower Society Herbarium, Framingham, Massachusetts
  • BELC – Steven Pearl Lathrop Herbarium, Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin
  • BEO – Herbarium of the Balkan Peninsula, Natural History Museum, Belgrade, Serbia
  • BEOU – University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  • BEREA – Berea College Herbarium, Berea, Kentucky
  • BERN – University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • BFDL – Forest Products Laboratory Herbarium, Madison, Wisconsin
  • BG – University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • BGSU – Bowling Green State University Herbarium, Bowling Green, Ohio
  • BH – L. H. Bailey Hortorium Herbarium, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  • BHCB – Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil;
  • BHO – Ohio University Herbarium, Athens, Ohio
  • BHSC – Black Hills State University Herbarium, Spearfish, South Dakota
  • BHUPM – Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  • BIGU – University of San Carlos of Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala
  • BILAS – Institute of Botany, Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • BING – State University of New York Herbarium, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York
  • BIRM – University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, UK
  • BISH – Herbarium Pacificum, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii
  • BKL Brooklyn Botanic Garden Herbarium Brooklyn New York
  • BLAT – St. Xavier’s College, Blatter Herbarium” “India; Mumbai, Maharashtra”
  • BLH – Billington Herbarium, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield, Hills Michigan
  • BLMLK – Bureau of Land Management Herbarium, Lakeview, Oregon
  • BM – British Museum of Natural History, London, England, UKBNL – Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn, Germany
  • BO – Herbarium Bogoriense (Indonesian Institute of Sciences), Indonesia, Bogor, West Java
  • BOIS – Rocky Mountain Research Station Herbarium, Boise, Idaho
  • BOL – Bolus Herbarium, Rondebosch, Western Cape Province, South Africa
  • BOLO – Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  • BOON – I.W. Carpenter Jr. Herbarium, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina
  • BORD – Jardin Botanique de la Ville de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
  • BPPI – Forest Research, Development and Innovation agency, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
  • BPS – Gilbert L. Stout Plant Disease Herbarium, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California
  • BR – National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Meise, Belgium
  • BRCH – Botanical Research Center Herbarium, Bryan, Texas
  • BREM – Übersee-Museum, Bremen, Germany
  • BRH – Forest Department Herbarium, Ministry of Natural Resources, Local Government, and the Environment, Belmopan, Belize
  • BRI – Queensland Herbarium, Australia, Brisbane, Queensland
  • BRIP – Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • BRIT, SMU, VDB – Botanical Research Institute of Texas Herbarium, Fort Worth, Texas
  • BRLU – Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • BROC – State University of New York Herbarium, SUNY Brockport, Brockport, New York
  • BRU – Steven T. Olney Herbarium, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island
  • BRY – S. L. Welsh Herbarium, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
  • BSC – Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
  • BSCA – Anza-Borrego Desert State Park Herbarium, Borrego Springs, California
  • BSID – Botanical Survey of India, Deccan Regional Centre, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • BSIP – Solomon Islands National Herbarium, Honiara, Solomon IslandsBSN – Stuart K. Harris Herbarium Boston University Boston Massachusetts
  • BSUH – Ball State University Herbarium, Muncie, Indiana
  • BTJW – Bridger-Teton National Forest Herbarium, Jackson, Wyoming
  • BUF – Clinton Herbarium, Buffalo Museum of Science, Buffalo, New York
  • BUNS – University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
  • BUPL – Wayne E. Manning Herbarium, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania
  • BUT – Friesner Herbarium, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

CABI – “Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International is an international not-for-profit organization that improves people’s lives worldwide by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. Our approach involves putting information, skills and tools into people’s hands.CABI’s 48 member countries guide and influence our work which is delivered by scientific staff based in our global network of centres.”- Comunidad Andina (see also EPPO): “The Andean Community (Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.The trade bloc was called the Andean Pact until 1996 and came into existence when the Cartagena Agreement was signed in 1969. Its headquarters are in Lima, Peru.” (Wikipedia, 2018)

CANBR – “Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Established 22 November 1993, prior to October 2010 it was known at the ‘Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research’ The Centre’s majorfunction is to document the biological diversity of the Australian environment through establishing the taxonomic identity and relationships of native plants, their geographical distribution, and their ecological relationships. These studies primarily concentrate on significant national plant groups such as eucalypts, orchids, grasses, grevilleas, mosses, rainforest laurels and the citrus family. The Centre has developed computer-based interactive systems for identifying rainforest trees and eucalypts.”

CANGC – “The California Association of Nurseries and Garden Centers is a trade organization that was founded in 1911 to promote and protect the California nursery industry.”CAST – The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology is a nonprofit organization composed of scientific societies and many individual, student, company, nonprofit, and associate society members. CAST’s Board is composed of representatives of the scientific societies, commercial companies, and nonprofit or trade organizations, and a Board of Directors.

CAST was established in 1972 as a result of a 1970 meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.

CaPR – “California Plant Rescue, or CaPR, is a collaborative of not-for- profit botanical institutions working under the auspices of the Center for Plant Conservation to conserve the wild species of California and the California Floristic Province, primarily through field work and long-term seed bank collections.”

CAT – “Catastrophic crop insurance — A component of the federal crop insurance program, originally authorized by the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994 (P .L. 103- 354). CAT coverage compensates farmers for crop yield losses exceeding 50% of their average historical yield at a payment rate of 55% of the projected season average market price. CAT coverage requires that a farmer realize a yield loss of more than 50% and only makes payments on losses exceeding the 50% threshold. Producers pay no premium for CAT coverage, but except for cases of financial hardship must pay an administrative fee of $100 per crop. A producer has the ability to purchase additional insurance coverage (or buy-up coverage) beyond CAT coverage, but must pay a premium, partially subsidized by the government.” (Womach, 2005)

CATIE – (Costa Rica) Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza: “The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) is a regional center dedicated to researchand graduate education in agriculture, and the management, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Its members include Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Venezuela, the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the State of Acre in Brazil.

CBR – Certificate of Botanical Recognition, American Orchid Society. “Awarded to rare and unusual species with educational interest that has received no previous awards. The entire plant must be exhibited. This award is granted provisionally and filed with the judging center Chair pending taxonomic verification supplied by the exhibitor. (see Taxonomic Authorities)”

CBS – “The California Botanical Society was founded by Willis Linn Jepson in 1913 and serves a major role in advancing Western American botany.” CBS publishes the journal Madroño.

CBU – Crop Biotech Update: “A weekly summary of world developments in agri-biotech for developing countries, produced by the Global Knowledge Center on Crop Biotechnology, International Service for the Acquisition of Agro-Biotech Applications SEAsia Center (ISAAA)”

CCC – “Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) — A wholly owned government corporation created in 1933 to stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices (federally chartered by the CCC Charter Act of 1948 (P.L. 80-806)). The CCC, which has no staff, is essentially a financing institution for USDA ’ s farm price and income support commodity programs, and agricultural export subsidies. It is authorized to buy, sell, lend, make payments and engage in other activities for the purpose of increasing production, stabilizing prices, assuring adequate supplies, and facilitating the efficient marketing of agricultural commodities. The 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) expanded the CCC mandate to include funding for several conservation programs (including the Conservation Reserve Program) and made conservationone of the purposes of the CCC. The programs funded through CCC are administered by employees of the Farm Service Agency. The CCC has the authority to borrow up to $30 billion from the U.S. Treasury to carry out its obligations. Net losses from its operations subsequently are restored through the congressional appropriationsprocess.” (Womach, 2005).
From the CCC website (2018): “The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is a Government-owned and operated entity that was created to stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices. CCC also helps maintain balanced and adequate supplies of agricultural commodities and aids in their orderly distribution. CCC was incorporated October 17, 1933, under a Delaware charter with a capitalization of $3 million. It was initially managed and operated in close affiliation with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which funded its operations. On July 1, 1939, CCC was transferred to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). It was reincorporated on July 1, 1948, as a Federal corporation within USDA by the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (62 Stat.1070; 15 U.S.C. 714). As amended through the Presidential Appointment Efficiency and Streamlining Act of 2011, P.L. 112-166, Enacted August 10, 2012. “

CCE – Certificate of Cultural Excellence, American Orchid Society. “Awarded to the exhibitor of a well-flowered specimen plant of robust health. The plant must have been in the care of the exhibitor at least 12 months immediately prior to the award and must score at least 90 points on a 100-point scale. Plants receiving this award represent the highest level of orchid culture.”

CCM – Certificate of Cultural Merit, American Orchid Society. “Awarded to the exhibitor of a well-flowered specimen plant of robust health. The plant must have been in the care of the exhibitor at least 12 months immediately prior to the award and must score between 80 and 89 points inclusive on a 100-point scale.”

CEPCEB – “The Center for Plant Cell Biology [UC Riverside] addresses significant questions in plant biology on a molecular level to meet such global challenges as improved nutrition, increased crop yield, resistance to pests, sustainable biofuels, and environmental conservation. To accomplish this, the Center engages its world-class researchers, the scientific community, and industry in interdisciplinary research, employing the latest advances in computation biology, engineering, chemical genomics, proteomics, microscopy and bioinformatics.”

CETAF – “CETAF is the Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities: a European network of Natural Science Museums, Natural History Museums, Botanical Gardens and Biodiversity Research Centres with their associated biological collections and research expertise. We aim to promote training, research and understanding in systematic biology and palaeobiology, and facilitate access to information (collections) and the expertise of its member institutions across Europe. ¶The CETAF network comprises 33 members representing 59 of the largest taxonomic institutions from 21 European countries. Its member institutions include Natural History Museums, Natural Sciences Museums, Botanical Gardens and other research institutions, with their associated collections and research expertise. Our collections comprise an estimated 1.5 billion specimens and represent more than 80% of the world’s described species. The collections themselves contain specimens of animals, plants, fungi, rocks or genetic resources that are used for scientific research and exhibitions. Owing to these collections, CETAF collectively represents an unprecedented resource for scientific research across the globe and its members act as the custodians of our common heritage. CETAF member institutions dedicate themselves to both the preservation of this rich heritage as well as to the promotion of it through scientific research, education and public outreach.”

CF – Certified Florist – See MFA

CFF – Crops for the Future “VISION: To be a world leader producing excellent, innovative research on underutilised crops that is responsive to societal demands. MISSION: To develop solutions that diversify agriculture using underutilised crops. OUR GOALS: To secure a greater role for underutilised crops in global agriculture, especially in developing regions of the world; Through our research, provide trusted knowledge on underutilised crops; With our partners, establish a global research community on underutilised crops; From our outputs, deliver innovative and useful products from underutilised crops; By our actions, develop evidence-based, sustainable applications using underutilised crops for society and environment. Crops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC) was established in 2011 to provide research support for the global Crops For the Future organisation.

CFFRC is a company limited by guarantee and without share capital. Its guarantors are the Government of Malaysia and the University of Nottingham in Malaysia.In 2014, Crops For the Future and CFFRC combined their resources to form a single global entity – Crops For the Future. CFF now combines its research and development functions on underutilised crops (CFF Research) with FutureCrop, an educational resource for underutilised crops and agricultural biodiversity. Both CFF Research and FutureCrop will increasingly offer consultancy services to interested parties.”(Unclear as to status, connection with University of Nottingham)”

CFFA – “The California Fresh Fruit Association (formerly the California Grape & Tree Fruit League) is a voluntary, nonprofit agricultural trade association that represents California’s fresh fruit industry ,advocating on behalf of its members on legislative and regulatory issues, at state, federal and international levels. The organization actively monitors legislative and regulatory activity on such issues as farm labor, crop protection materials, marketing requirements, environmental resources, trade, packaging, transportation and other issues of importance. The Association is one of the oldest agriculturaltrade associations in California, with its origins dating back to 1921 with the California Growers and Shippers Protective League and 1936 with the California Grape Growers and Shippers Association. In 1948, together, these organizations merged into the California Grape & Tree Fruit League. From that early time, CGTFL witnessed a great amount of growth, support and loyalty. In 2014, the California Grape & Tree Fruit League formerly became the California Fresh Fruit Association. The organization continues today by representing its members in all aspects of public policy.”

CFS – “Center for Food Safety (CFS) is a national non-profit public interest and environmental advocacy organization working to protect human health and the environment by curbing the use of harmful food production technologies and by promoting organic and other forms of sustainable agriculture. CFS also educates consumers concerning the definition of organic food and products. CFS uses legal actions, groundbreaking scientific and policy reports, books and other educational materials, market pressure and grass roots campaigns through our True Food Network. CFS’s successful legal cases collectively represent a landmark body of case law on food and agricultural issues.”

CFSAN – “Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition — The agency within the Food and Drug Administration responsible for developing and overseeing enforcement of food safety and quality regulations and coordinating FDA and states’ surveillance and compliance programs, among other activities. FDA ’ s roughly 800 field inspectors (located administratively within FDA’s Office of Regulatory Affairs) enforce CFSAN’s food safety regulations at 53,000 processing facilities. Among other activities, this center is engaged in surveillance of imported fruits and vegetables, investigating the risk of Listeria, approving additives to safeguard the nation’s food supply and adopting HACCP rules for manufacturers of fruit juices, seafood and shell eggs – https:// www.fda.gov/Food/default.htm. (Womach, 2005)

CFVGA – “The Colorado Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association (CFVGA) is a nonprofit organization that will help improve the business sustainability and profitability of commercial fruit and vegetable growers in Colorado of all sizes, organic and conventional, direct marketing (farmers market, CSA, produce stand, etc.) and wholesale marketing. CFVGA is committed to being the go-to resource for Colorado produce growers in five core areas of focus with partners including Colorado State University, the Colorado Department of Agriculture and the Western Growers. We connect Colorado growers with industry, government, academia and consumers to strengthen and expand Colorado fresh fruit and vegetable production.”

CGIAR – “The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research is a network of research organizations that are looking to promote and support global food security. With 15 centers around the globe, CGIAR helps to share knowledge and advance research on rural poverty, health and nutrition, and management of natural resources.”

CGTFL – (Archaic) See CFFA…

CHAH – “ The Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria comprises those administratively responsible for the major Australian and New Zealand Herbaria with the aim of promoting all matters of interest to herbaria in Australasia and to increase cooperation and understanding between herbaria.” (see also CANBR)

ChilSPB – “The Chilean Society of Plant Biologists (ChilSPB) is a network of scientists including faculty, researchers and students that promotes activities for the advancement of plant science in Chile. The Society organizes an annual conference in Chile that brings together research groups working on plantbiology.” (GPC website)

CHM – Certificate of Horticultural Merit, American Orchid Society. “Awarded to a well-grown and well-flowered species or natural hybrid with characteristics that contribute to the horticultural aspects of orchidology, such as aesthetic appeal. This award is grantedprovisionally and filed with the judging center Chair pending taxonomic verification supplied by the exhibitor. (see Taxonomic Authorities)”

ChSPB – “The Chinese Society for Plant Biology (ChSPB), established in October 1963, now has 12 special committees under its umbrella, covering all plant biology fields. Currently, its membership boasts more than 4800, ranging from regional plant physiology societies and professional plant physiology groups throughout major cities and autonomous regions of 28 provinces nationwide.” (GPC website)

CI – Conservation International: “Protecting the nature we all rely on for food, fresh water and livelihoods”

CIARD – “The Coherence in Information for Agricultural Research for Development (CIARD) movement is working to make agricultural research information and knowledge publicly accessible to all. Coherence in Information for Agricultural Research for Development (CIARD) is a global movement working to make agricultural research information publicly available and more accessible. The aim is to enable organisations that create or possess public agricultural knowledge to disseminate it more effectively. The CIARD partners coordinate their efforts, promote common formats for information sharing and exchange, and adopt open information systems approaches. Creating a global network of truly accessible outputs of research and innovation greatly increases the chance that they can be put to use, locally, nationally and globally. CIARD’s Objective is to collaboratively develop common standards, share knowledge, and contribute to effective and coherent institutional approaches in agricultural science and technology information.”

CIEEM – Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management: “CIEEM is the leading professional membership body representing and supporting ecologists and environmental managers in the UK, Ireland and abroad. Our Vision is of a society which values the natural environment and recognises the contribution ofprofessional ecologists and environmental managers to its conservation. Established in 1991 and receiving our Royal Charter in 2013, we have members drawn from across the employment sectors including local authorities, government agencies, NGOs, environmental consultancy, academia and industry. “

CIFOR – “Center for International Forestry Research: “CIFOR is a non- profit, scientific institution that conducts research on the most pressing challenges of forest and landscape management around the world. Using a global, multidisciplinary approach, we aim to improve human well-being, protect the environment, and increase equity. To do so, we conduct innovative research, develop partners’ capacity, and actively engage in dialogue with all stakeholders to inform policies and practices that affect forests and people… CIFOR’s work is based on three pillars, all of which are essential for achieving our mission: Research for impact; Capacity development; Outreach and engagement”

CIMMYT – Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)

CIPA – “The California Interior Plantscape Association is made up of individuals and companies committed to promoting professionalism in our industry.”

CISMA – Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area. See CWMA

CISR – “The Center for Invasive Species Research based on the University of California Riverside Campus provides a forward-looking approach to managing invasions in California by exotic pests and diseases. The long-term goal of the Center for Invasive Species Research is to develop a systematic methodology for dealing with such exotic pests in areas of: (a) risk assessment; (b) early detection andinvasion pathway analysis; (c) rapid development of control or eradication measures; (d) improved Integrated Pest Management practices through biological, microbial, genetic, and chemical practices; (e) better understanding of patterns and processes facilitating invasion success and failure, and (f), in the longer term, exploring the possibilities of transgenic biological manipulations to control or eradicate invasive species.”

CITES – “The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.”

CoNPS – “Founded in 1976, the Colorado Native Plant Society (CoNPS) is dedicated to furthering the knowledge, appreciation and conservation of native plants and habitats of Colorado through education, stewardship and advocacy. ¶Membership is open to all plant enthusiasts with an interest in our native plants and ecosystems. The Society welcomes beginners as well as experts. ¶The Colorado Native Plant Society educates members and the public about native plants and plant communities through a variety of activities. The Society cooperates with private and public organizations to promote conservation of native plants and the responsible use of native plants for horticulture and restoration.”

CNPS – California Native Plant Society: “Originally formed in 1965 in the east bay region, the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) is a statewide non-profit organization of amateurs and professionals with a common interest in California’s native plants. Our nearly 10,000 members work to promote native plant appreciation, research, education, and conservation through our five statewide programs and 34 regional chapters in California.”

COAP – “Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program — Along with the Sunflower Oil Assistance Program (SOAP), COAP was one of two programs that awarded bonuses to exporters to assist in exports of U.S.vegetable oil to targeted markets. Funds for the programs were authorized to be made available under Section 32 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1935 (P.L. 74-320). The provision in the Disaster Assistance Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-387) that authorized the COAP to begin in fiscal year 1989 expired at the end of fiscal year 1995.However, the USDA appropriations act for FY1996 (P.L. 104-37, October 21, 1995) provided authority to operate the program in fiscal year 1996. COAP was not reauthorized by the 1996 farm bill (P.L.104-127), although export subsidies for cottonseed oil can be financed under the Export Enhancement Program (EEP).” (Womach, 2005)

COOL – “Country-of-origin labeling (COOL) — Federal law has long required most imports, including many food items, to bear labels informing the ultimate purchaser of their country of origin. Meats, produce, and several other raw agricultural products generally were exempt. The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) contained a requirement that many retail establishments provide, starting on September 30, 2004, country-of-origin information on fresh fruits and vegetables, red meats, seafoods, and peanuts. A subsequent appropriation law (P.L.108-199) postponed mandatory COOL for these products (except seafoods) until September 30, 2006. At issue are whether consumers are more likely to buy the U.S. alternative if such labeling is more prevalent; the business and government costs of implementation and enforcement; and whether foreign countries might challenge the new law as an illegal trade barrier (although many have their own COOL rules).” (Womach, 2005)

COSAVE – Comité de Sanidad Vegetal (see also EPPO) “The Committee of Plant Health of the Southern Cone (COSAVE), is one of the youngest Regional Plant Protection Organizations, since it was created by agreement between the Governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay on March 9, 1989. The mentioned Constitutive Agreement has been ratified by the Parliaments of the five Member Countries, acquiring the force of law, being registered before theOrganization of the United Nations and deposited with the Government of Uruguay.”

CPAR – “The Center for Plant Aging Research, based at the Institute for Basic Science in Daegu, South Korea, aims to reveal a detailed picture of the molecular events for understanding plant life history and senescence from the viewpoint of the spatiotemporal dynamics of network modules. As well as providing new insights a fundamental scientific level, work at the Center for Plant Aging Research will contribute to the improvement of plant productivity, with far-reaching impacts on human society.” (GPC website)

CPNPP – “The Vision of the Colorado Plateau Native Plant Program is a Colorado Plateau that supports healthy and resilient native plant communities now and for future generations the Colorado PlateauNative Plant Program (CPNPP) is a partnership that includes federal, state, and local agencies; tribal nations, non-governmental conservation organizations; university researchers and curators; commercial plant materials industry (seed and seedling growers and sellers); and seed testing and certification entities.”CPPC – (Archaic) Caribbean Plant Protection Commission

CRC – “Crop Revenue Coverage — A form of revenue insurance that protects a producer’s revenue for an insurable crop whenever low prices, low yields, or a combination of both causes revenue to fall below a guaranteed level selected by the producer. It differs from other revenue insurance programs by allowing producers to use the higher of the planting price or the market price in determining a target level of revenue.” (Womach, 2005)

CRFG – “California Rare Fruit Growers is a membership of like-minded experimenters and enthusiasts dedicated to: 1. Conducting research on hardiness, propagation, and growing requirements of rare fruits under California conditions; 2. Introducing and distributing new fruits potentially adaptable to California; 3. Selecting superior varieties ofestablished fruits better suited to specific areas and growing conditions; 4. Exchanging seed, cuttings, scion wood, layers, etc., with each other primarily for home utilization and to fulfill the needs of the small farmer or urban hobby grower; 5. Publishing pertinent information regarding the above activities; 6. Adhering to Federal, State and County agricultural regulations.”

CRP – “Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) — A program created in the Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198), to retire from production up to 45 million acres of highly erodible and environmentally sensitive farmland. Landowners who sign contracts agree to keep retired lands in approved conserving uses for 10-15 years. In exchange, the landowner receives an annual rental payment, cost-share payments to establish permanent vegetative cover, and technical assistance. The CRP reportedly has reduced erosion by up to 700 million tons per year. The 2002 farm bill extends authorization to enroll land through FY2007 and caps maximum total CRP acreage at 39.2 million acres.The Act adds a new subprogram to enroll up to 1 million acres of wetlands individually smaller than 10 acres and associated buffers. The Act continues to make the program spending mandatory and finances it through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), adding that the CCC should fund technical assistance in support of the program. As of February 2005, more than 262,000 farms had enrolled 34.8 million acres; states with the greatest participation include Texas, Montana, and North Dakota, each with more than 3 million acres.” (Womach, 2005)

CSA – “Community supported agriculture — A form of risk management whereby a farmer supports his (usually small) operation by selling shares in the farm’s annual production. Share-holders pay a certain amount of money at the beginning of the growing season and are entitled to a portion of each week’s harvest until the end of the season. Share-holders are not refunded their money if some or all of the crops fail. Also known as subscription farming.” (Womach, 2005)

CSA – The Cymbidium Society of America was founded in 1946 to stimulate and extend the appreciation of Cymbidiums, Paphiopedilums and other cool-growing orchids… [and] strives to develop, acquire and disseminate information concerning these beautiful and enchanting orchids.”

CSCE – “Coffee, Sugar, and Cocoa Exchange, which merged with the New York Cotton Exchange in 1998, to become the New York Board of Trade.” (Womach, 2005)

CSIRO – “At the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), we shape the future. We do this by using science to solve real issues to unlock a better future for our community, our economy, our planet. We’re Australia’s national science research agency. At CSIRO, we solve the greatest challenges using innovative science and technology.”

CSR – “The Coalition for Sugar Reform is a broad-based group of food and beverage manufacturers, trade associations, environmental advocates, taxpayer watchdog organizations, responsible government advocates, think tanks and other organizations. Our group is led by the National Confectioners Association and the Sweetener Users Association, which count among their membership the hundreds of American companies that use sugar as an ingredient in the products they make. Our Mission: We’re advocating for reform of the U.S. sugar program, because it hurts small, family-owned businesses that are the backbone of our economy and key drivers of growth. The sugar program is a complicated tangle of price supports, market allotments, import quotas, and government-guaranteed loans – and it has been protected by special interest since the great depression!”

CSSA – “The Cactus And Succulent Society Of America (CSSA), Founded In 1929, Is A Worldwide Community Of Avid Gardeners, Hobby And Commercial Horticulturists, Nurserymen, And Professional Scientists Who All Share An Appreciation For Cacti And Other Types Of Succulent Plants.

CSSA – “The Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) is a progressive international scientific society that fosters the mission of plant science for a better world. Based in Madison, WI, and founded in 1956, CSSA is the professional home for 5,000+ members dedicated to advancing the field of crop science.”

CSPB – “The Canadian Society of Plant Biologists (CSPB) (French: Societé Canadienne de Biologie Végétale; SCBV) provides a forum for plant scientists in Canada to meet and discuss not only the latest scientific developments in the field, but also the political, social and financial issues that we all face as we develop our research and/or teaching careers.” (GPC website)CSSC – “The Crop Science Society of China (CSSC) was established in December 1961 and is currently affiliated to Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). As an academic society established under the approval of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, CSSC is a legally registered, academic, nationwide non-profit organization that is voluntarily formed by scientists and institutions in the field of crop sciences.” (GPC website)

CT (Assigned) – Crop Trust (nee Global Crop Diversity Trust): “We were founded in 2004 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and Bioversity International on behalf of the CGIAR, and concluded a Headquarters Agreement with the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in December 2012, transferring our headquarters to Bonn in 2013.”The Crop Trust provides:Financial support for the key international genebanks that make the diversity of our most important food crops available to all under the International Treaty; Tools and support for the efficient management of genebanks; Coordination between conserving institutions to ensure that all crop diversity is protected, accessible and used; Final backup of crop seeds in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault.”

CTA – “The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) is a joint international institution of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States and the European Union (EU). Central to achieving our mission is our valued partnerships with ACP national and regional bodies. We also work with a wide network of ACP-EU public and private sector bodies as well as international organisations around the world. Our mission, vision and core values are at the heart of our organisation. They inspire our people, underpin our decisions and motivate our actions. Our Mission: To advance food security, resilience and inclusive economic growth in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific through innovations in sustainable agriculture. Our Vision: Smallholder agriculture as a vibrant, modern and sustainable business that creates value for farmers, entrepreneurs, youth and women, and produces affordable, nutritious and healthy food for all.”

CWMA – “Cooperative Weed Management Areas (CWMAs) and Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas (CISMAs) are variations on a common theme of locally-led collaborations that support healthy ecosystems and the communities they encompass. A CWMA/CISMA is a community-based partnership of federal, state, and local government agencies, private landowners, natural resource managers, non-governmental organizations, and others who agree to cooperatively manage invasive species in a defined area.” (quoted from the NAIPC website)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

C – in floral formulae, Corolla (see also Co)

Ca – in floral formulae, Calyx (see also K)

ca. – an abbreviation of circa, which means “about” or “approximately” Botanists use “circa” (or will even spell out the letters, c a..) frequently to soften their claims.

cf. – compare to, “confer” – examine in reference to a different taxon

Cl. – in taxonomy, a clonecm. – centimeter

Co – in floral formulae, Corolla (see also C)

Comb. nov. – in taxonomy, marking first publication of a new combination (such as assigning a known-species to a different genus)

CSS – Corn Stunt Spiroplasma – A stunting disease caused by the Mollicute Spiroplasma kunkelii, which is vectored by leafhoppers. (Smith, Betrán, Runge, 2005)

cult. – an abbreviation of “cultivated” – referring to plant selections or specimens found in cultivated settings.cv., cvs. – cultivar, cultivars

cwt. – from Wikipedia, 2018: “The hundredweight (abbreviation: cwt), formerly also known as the centum weight or quintal, is an English, imperial, and US customary unit of weight or mass of various values. Its present value continues to differ between the American and imperial systems. The two values are distinguished in American English as the “short” and “long” hundredweight and in British English as the “cental” and the “imperial hundredweight”. – The short hundredweight or cental of 100 lb (45.359237 kg) is used in the US and Canada. – The long or imperial hundredweight of 8 stone (112 lb or 50.802345 kg) is in informal use in the imperial system but its use for trade in the UK was ended by Schedule 1, Part VI of the Weights and Measures Act 1985.[3] – Under both conventions, there are 20hundredweight in a ton, producing a “short ton” of 2000 lb and a “long ton” of 2240 lb.”

CZ – the central zone of stem cells in a point meristem

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • CAB – Cabombaceae – dicot
  • CAC – Cactaceae – dicot
  • CAL – Calycanthaceae – dicot
  • CAM – Campanulaceae – dicot
  • CAN – Cannabaceae – dicot
  • CAN – Cannaceae – monocot
  • CAS – Casuarinaceae – dicot
  • CCD – Cycadaceae – gymnosperm
  • CCH – Cochlospermaceae – dicot
  • CCH** – Cyclocheilaceae – dicot
  • CCR – Caryocaraceae – dicot
  • CDP – Cercidiphyllaceae – dicot
  • CEC** – Cecropiaceae – dicot
  • CEL – Celastraceae – dicot
  • CEN – Centrolepidaceae – monocot
  • CHB – Chrysobalanaceae – dicot
  • CHC – Colchicaceae – monocot
  • CHI – Cheiropleuriaceae – pteridophyte
  • CHN – Chenopodiaceae – dicot
  • CHR – Christenseniaceae – pteridophyte
  • CIC – Cichoriaceae – dicot
  • CIR – Circaeasteraceae – dicot
  • CIS – Cistaceae – dicot
  • CLC – Calyceraceae – dicot
  • CLE – Clethraceae – dicot
  • CLE* – Calectasiaceae – monocot
  • CLL – Callitrichaceae – dicot
  • CLM – Carlemanniaceae – dicot
  • CLO – Chloanthaceae – dicot
  • CLR – Chloranthaceae – dicot
  • CLT – Celtidaceae – dicot
  • CLU – Clusiaceae – dicot
  • CMB – Combretaceae – dicot
  • CMC – Cleomaceae – dicot
  • CMM – Commelinaceae – monocot
  • CMP – Compositae – dicot
  • CNC – Corynocarpaceae – dicot
  • CNL – Canellaceae – dicot
  • CNM – Cynomoriaceae – dicot
  • CNN – Connaraceae – dicot
  • CNR – Cneoraceae – dicot
  • CNT – Canotiaceae – dicot
  • CNV – Convolvulaceae – dicot
  • COB – Cobaeaceae – dicot
  • COD – Coridaceae – dicot
  • COL – Columelliaceae – dicot
  • COP – Coptaceae – dicot
  • COR – Cornaceae – dicot
  • COS – Corsiaceae – monocot
  • COT – Costaceae – monocot
  • CPD – Cypripediaceae – monocot
  • CPD** – Carpodetaceae – dicot
  • CPH – Cephalotaceae – dicot
  • CPN – Carpinaceae – dicot
  • CPP – Capparaceae – dicot
  • CPR – Caprifoliaceae – dicot
  • CPT – Crypteroniaceae – dicot
  • CRC – Caricaceae – dicot
  • CRD – Cordiaceae – dicot
  • CRG – Cryptogrammaceae – pteridophyte
  • CRL – Corylaceae – monocot
  • CRM – Croomiaceae – monocot
  • CRO – Crossosomataceae – dicot
  • CRP – Cardiopteridaceae – dicot
  • CRR – Coriariaceae – dicot
  • CRS – Crassulaceae – dicot
  • CRT – Cartonemataceae – monocot
  • CRU – Cruciferae – dicot
  • CRY – Caryophyllaceae – dicot
  • CSL – Caesalpiniaceae – dicot
  • CSS – Cassythaceae – dicot
  • CTH – Cyatheaceae – pteridophyte
  • CTL – Ctenolophonaceae – dicot
  • CTP – Ceratophyllaceae – dicot
  • CTX – Cephalotaxaceae – gymnosperm
  • CUC – Cucurbitaceae – dicot
  • CUL – Culcitaceae – pteridophyte
  • CUN – Cunoniaceae – dicot
  • CUP – Cupressaceae – gymnosperm
  • CUS – Cuscutaceae – dicot
  • CVL – Convallariaceae – monocot
  • CYC – Cyclanthaceae – monocot
  • CYM – Cymodoceaceae – monocot
  • CYN – Cyanastraceae – monocot
  • CYP – Cyperaceae – monocot
  • CYR – Cyrillaceae – dicot
  • CYT** – Cytinaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

C – element – Carbon

C – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Cysteine

C3 – reaction

C4 – reaction

Ca – element

CAATCACTA – a family of transposons in the grains

CAMCaMCAT – reaction – Catalase

CCA – Circadian Clock Regulator

CCT – genes that regulate flowering time in plants. Three families of these genes reported:

CONSTANS-like (COL); Pseudo-response regulator (PRR), and CMF, a CCT motif family

CDC/CDC CDTCig – protein

CGMMV – Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

Cl – element – Chlorine

Co – element – Cobolt


COLDAIR & COOLAIR RNAs are derived from FLOWERING C, and impact temperature-based flowering. (Singer, 2018)

CONSTANS/CO – “the first cloned CCT gene regulating flowering time in Arabidopsis through the photoperiod pathway. CO is a central player in this photoperiod pathway” (CCT family genes in cereal crops: A current overview, Yipu Li Mingliang Xu, The Crop Journal, 5(6) December 2017, Pages 449-458, open access, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2017.07.001)

CONSTANS acts to boost FLORIGEN activity in response to light exposure. (Singer, 2018)

COR – process – Cold Regulated Genes

CRE – receptor – cytokinan receptor

CRISPR – Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, First identified in 1987 by Japanese Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino, described by Spanish researcher Francisco Mojica in 1993, and named by University of Utrecht Researcher Ruud Jansen in 2002. See many sources for information, including Wikipedia and Broad Institute: https://http://www.broadinstitute.org/what-broad/areas-focus/project- spotlight/questions-and-answers-about-crispr

CRY – the gene and protein derived from Bt

CTR – protein – Constitutive Triple Response

Cu -element

CYC – CYCLOIDEA genes, related to floral symmetry

Cys – abbreviation for the amino acid Cysteine

C HOPKNS CaFe Mg B Mn SiNiCl CuZn MoNa


  • C – University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • CACS – Chicago Academy of Sciences Herbarium, Chicago Illinois
  • CAG – Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
  • CAHS – Crispus Attucks High School Herbarium, Indianapolis, Indiana
  • CAI, CAIM – Cairo University, Egypt, Cairo
  • CAL – Central National Herbarium, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  • CAMU – Cameron University Herbarium, Lawton, Oklahoma
  • CAN, CANM – National Herbarium of Canada, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario
  • CANB – Australian National Herbarium, Canberra, Australia
  • CANI – Canisius College Herbarium, Canisius College, Buffalo, New YorkCARL – Carleton College Herbarium, Northfield, Minnesota
  • CART – Carthage College Herbarium, Kenosha, Wisconsin
  • CAS – California Academy of Sciences Herbarium, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California
  • CAT – Università di Catania, Catania, Sicily, Italy
  • CAY – Herbier de Guyane, Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) Cayenne, French Guiana
  • CBM – Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, Japan
  • CCNL – Charles B. Graves Herbarium, Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut
  • CCSU – Orville Bissett Herbarium, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, Connecticut
  • CDA – California Department of Food and Agriculture Herbarium, Sacramento, California
  • CDBI – Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
  • CFMR – Forest Products Laboratory Herbarium, Madison, Wisconsin
  • CGE – University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, UKCHAF – Chaffey College Herbarium, Alta Loma, California
  • CHARL – Charleston Museum Herbarium, Charleston, South Carolina
  • CHAS – Southern Research Station Herbarium, Charleston, South Carolina
  • CHE Société Nationale des Sciences Naturelles et Mathématiques de Cherbourg, Cherbourg, France
  • CHIC – Nancy Poole Rich Herbarium, Chicago Botanic Garden, Glencoe, Illinois
  • CHR – Landcare Research New Zealand Limited, Allan Herbarium, Lincoln, New Zealand
  • CHRB – Chrysler Herbarium, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
  • CHSC – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Chico, California
  • CI – Carnegie Institution of Washington Herbarium, Stanford, California
  • CIC – Albertson College of Idaho Herbarium, Caldwell, Idaho
  • CLEMS – Clemson University Herbarium, Clemson, South Carolina
  • CLF – Institut des Herbiers Universitaires de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • CLM – Cleveland Museum of Natural History Herbarium, Cleveland, Ohio
  • CM – Carnegie Museum of Natural History Herbarium, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania
  • CMC – Central Michigan University Herbarium, Mount Pleasant, Michigan
  • CMML – CSU Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands Herbarium, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • CNF – Croatian Mycological Society, Zagreb, Croatia
  • CNS – Australian Tropical Herbarium, Cairns, Queensland, Australia;
  • COA – Universidad de Córdoba Córdoba Spain
  • COCO – Colorado College Herbarium, Colorado Springs, Colorado
  • COI – University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • COL – Herbario Nacional Colombiano, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia
  • COLG – Columbus State University Herbarium, Columbus, Georgia
  • COLOM – Colorado State Museum Herbarium, Denver, Colorado
  • CONC – Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
  • CONV – Converse College Herbarium, Spartanburg, South Carolina
  • CORD – Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina
  • CORT – State University of New York College at Cortland Herbarium, Cortland, New York
  • CP – Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • CR – Herbario Nacional, Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • CRLA – Crater Lake National Park Herbarium, Crater Lake, Oregon
  • CRMC – College of the Redwoods, Mendocino Coast Campus Herbarium, Fort Bragg, California
  • CS – Colorado State University Herbarium, Fort Collins, ColoradoCSB – St. John’s University/College of Saint Benedict Herbarium, Collegeville, Minnesota
  • CSCN – Chadron State College Herbarium, Chadron, Nebraska
  • CSLA – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Los Angeles, California
  • CSPU – California State Polytechnic University Herbarium, Pomona, California
  • CTES – Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina
  • CU – Wiegand Herbarium Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  • CUP – Cornell Plant Pathology Herbarium, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  • CUS – Cusino Wildlife Research Station Herbarium, Shingleton, Michigan
  • CUW – Clark University Herbarium, Worcester, Massachusetts
  • CVCW – Clinch Valley College, University of Virginia Herbarium, Wise, Virginia
  • CWC – Central Wyoming College Herbarium, Riverton, Wyoming


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, Programs, & Publications…

DBG – “The German Society for Plant Sciences (Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft, DBG) is the largest non-profit network of plant sciences and botany in the German speaking area. The society represents plant scientists, promotes scientific botany nationally and internationally and furthers scientific exchange among its members. The DBG is one of the oldest extant botanical societies in the world. It integrates all plant science disciplines, supports young scientists and unites all generations.”

DBG – Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, AZ

DCPS – “The Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences (DCPS), founded in 2009 at the Freie Universität Berlin, celebrated its opening with a half- day symposium on September 29, 2010. More than 200 guests followed the invitation to the recently renovated lecture hall of the Botanic Museum to hear the addresses and talks by officials from the Freie Universität Berlin, the Berlin Senate Department and internationally renowned plant scientists”

DFA – “DFA of California, founded in 1908, is a non-profit trade association providing support to the dried fruit, tree nut, and kindred product industry through commodity inspection, the Red Seal Program, and the Export Trading Company.”

DGA – The Direct Gardening Association, formerly the Mailorder Gardening Association (MGA), is a member organization that consists of companies that sell live and hard goods via catalog or online. The ultimate goal of the DGA is to assist it’s members with ways to marketand adequately provide the finest gardening products, information, and service to the consumer.DI – Demeter International: “Demeter is the brand for products from Biodynamic Agriculture. Only strictly controlled and contractually bound partners are permitted to use the Brand. A comprehensive verification process insures strict compliance with the International Demeter Production and Processing Standards, as well as applicable organic regulations in the various countries; without a gap, through every step, from agricultural production to processing and final product packaging.”

DNPS – “The purpose of the Delaware Native Plant Society (DNPS) is to participate in and encourage the preservation, conservation, restoration, and propagation of Delaware’s native plants and plant communities. The Society provides information to government officials, business people, educators, and the general public on the protection, management, and restoration of native plant ecosystems. The DNPS encourages the use of native plants in the landscape by homeowners, businesses, and local and state governments through an on-going distribution of information and knowledge by various means that includes periodic publications, symposia, conferences, workshops, field trips, and a growing statewide membership organized by the DNPS. ¶On 18 March 1998, 15 people met in the conference room at the Aquatic Resources Education Center (DNREC) in Smyrna, and at 7:30 PM that night, the organizational meeting for the Delaware Native Plant Society commenced.”

DOI – “Department of the Interior — This cabinet-level agency, also known as the Home Department, was created on March 3, 1849 by an Act of Congress to oversee and manage the vast national or public domain. Today this Department includes eight bureaus whose functions include managing National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges, collecting revenues from mineral resources, and operatingprograms developing, protecting, and enhancing resources on the Nation’s public lands.” (Womach, 2005)

DP (DPP) – “Direct Payments Program — Under the Direct and Counter-cyclical Program (DCP) created by the 2002 farm bill for covered commodities and peanuts (P.L. 101-171, Sec. 1101-1108 and 1301-1310), fixed, decoupled direct payments are one element and counter-cyclical payments (CCP) are the other element. Direct payments replaced what previously were called contract payments under the 1996 farm bill. Counter-cyclical payments are analogous to target price deficiency payments (operational after the 1973 farm bill but discontinued by the 1996 farm bill).” (Womach, 2005)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

deest – “I am missing” not an abbreviation, but a short term that indicates a type specimen has not been locateddiam. – diameter, often related to measurements of tree diameter.

DINC – Description, Identification, Nomenclature, and Classification, which (from Michael Simpson’s Plant Systematics) constitute Taxonomy.

dbh – diameter breast height, a standard way to record measurements for tree diameter.

DOS – Doctrine of Signatures

Kew Plant Family Abbreviation

  • DAN – Danaeaceae – pteridophyte
  • DAS – Dasypogonaceae – monocot**
  • DAT – Datiscaceae – dicot
  • DAV – Davalliaceae – pteridophyte
  • DCH – Dichapetalaceae – dicot
  • DCK – Dicksoniaceae – pteridophyte
  • DCL – Diclidantheraceae – dicot
  • DCO – Dichondraceae – dicot
  • DCR – Dicrastylidaceae – dicot
  • DDM – Didymelaceae – dicot
  • DEG – Degeneriaceae – dicot
  • DGD – Diegodendraceae – dicot
  • DIA – Diapensiaceae – dicot
  • DID – Didiereaceae – dicot
  • DIE – Diervillaceae – dicot**
  • DLL – Dilleniaceae – dicot
  • DLP – Dialypetalanthaceae – dicot
  • DNT – Donatiaceae – dicot
  • DOD – Dodonaeaceae – dicot
  • DON – Dioncophyllaceae – dicot
  • DOR – Doryanthaceae – monocot**
  • DPC – Dipterocarpaceae – dicot
  • DPH – Daphniphyllaceae – dicot
  • DPN – Dipentodontaceae – dicot
  • DPS – Dipsacaceae – dicot
  • DPT – Dipteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • DRC – Dracaenaceae – monocot
  • DRM – Dirachmaceae – dicot
  • DRO – Drosophyllaceae – dicot**
  • DRS – Droseraceae – dicot
  • DRY – Dryopteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • DSC – Dioscoreaceae – monocot
  • DSF – Desfontainiaceae – dicot
  • DST – Dennstaedtiaceae – pteridophyte
  • DUK – Duckeodendraceae – dicot
  • DUL – Dulongiaceae – dicot
  • DVD – Davidiaceae – dicot
  • DVS – Davidsoniaceae – dicot
  • DYS – Dysphaniaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

D – 1-letter symbol for Aspartic acid

DBF – protein –

DCPA – “Dacthal — A selective herbicide, trade name Dacthal, especially used on vegetables. DCPA and its breakdown products are environmentally significant because they may pose unreasonable risks to certain nontarget plants and animals. In addition, EPA is gathering data on occupational exposures due to concerns about chronic cancer risks. EPA has determined that DCPA and its metabolites do not currently pose a significant cancer or chronic non-cancer risk to the general public from most uses.” (Womach, 2005)

DDT – “The abbreviated name of a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, dichloro-diphenyl- trichloromethane. It is persistent in the environment and biomagnifies in birds of prey. The EPA canceled U.S. registration of virtually all but emergency uses of DDT in1972.” (Womach, 2005)

DEFICIENS (DEF) – gene. See An everlasting pioneer: the story of Antirrhinum research, Zsuzsanna Schwarz-Sommer, Brendan Davies and Andrew Hudson: “DEFICIENS (DEF) was the first floral planthomeotic gene to be cloned. It is a member of the def allelic series that was originally described in 1924 by Baur as a mutant in which sepals replace petals, and carpels replace stamens (identical to the phenotype of globosa).

DEF became the founder member of a well-known gene family with a common DNA-binding domain, called the MADS. This domain is also present in transcription factors from other eukaryotes. Ironically, although DEF was tagged by a transposon, it was eventually isolated by a tour de force of molecular biology by Hans Sommer and colleagues, through the differential screening of a subtracted cDNA library.”

DELLA – protein


DMT – 3,5 dimethoxytoluene – a major component in rose fragrances

DNADO – “Dissolved oxygen — The oxygen freely available in water, vital to fish and other aquatic life and necessary for the prevention of odors in water.

DO levels are a critical indicator of a waterbody’ s ability to support desirable aquatic life. Secondary and advanced wastewater treatments are generally designed to ensure adequate DO in waste-receiving CRS-79 waters by removing, digesting, or oxidizing oxygen-demanding wastes (see Biological oxygen demand).” (Womach, 205)




  • DAO, DAOM – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Ottawa Ontario
  • DAR – Orange Agricultural Institute, Plant Pathology Herbarium, Orange, New South Wales, Australia
  • DAV; DAVH – University of California Davis Center for Plant Diversity, Davis, California
  • DBG – Denver Botanic Gardens Mycology Laboratory and Herbarium, Denver, Colorado
  • DBN – National Botanic Gardens, Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
  • DBY – Derby Museum and Art Gallery, Derby, England, UKDD – Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • DECA – Agnes Scott College Herbarium, Decatur, Georgia
  • DEK – Northern Illinois University Herbarium, DeKalb, Illinois
  • DEN – Denison University Herbarium, Granville, Ohio
  • DES – Desert Botanical Garden Herbarium, Phoenix, Arizona
  • DEVA – Death Valley National Park Herbarium, Death Valley, California
  • DEWV – Davis and Elkins College Herbarium, Elkins, West Virginia
  • DH – Hobart and William Smith Colleges Herbarium, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York
  • DINH – Delta Institute of Natural History Herbarium, Bowdoin, Maine
  • DLF – Stetson University Herbarium, DeLand, Florida
  • DMNH – Dayton Museum of Natural History Herbarium, Dayton, Ohio
  • DNA – Northern Territory Herbarium, Palmerston, Northern Territory, Australia
  • DOV – Claude E. Phillips Herbarium, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware
  • DR – Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
  • DS – Dudley Herbarium, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California
  • DSC – Delta State University Herbarium, Cleveland, Mississippi
  • DSM – University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • DUKE – Duke University Herbarium, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • DVM – Diablo Valley College Herbarium, Pleasant Hill, California
  • DWC – William Darlington Herbarium, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania
  • DWU – Dakota Wesleyan University Herbarium, Mitchell, South Dakota


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

ECfES – Eugene Center for Ethnobotanical Studies: “We are concerned citizens, some with backgrounds in natural healing, some with history in the Eugene socio-political sphere, others with connections to universities and organizations that are currently working to upgrade the modern psycho-pharmacopeia protocol. We come from diverse backgrounds, but all share a common vision of a healthier human community.”

ECN – Environmental Change Network – a study-network of 12 terrestrial sites and over 40 wetland sites in the UK. “We are the UK’s long-term, integrated environmental monitoring and research programme. We collect, analyse and interpret a wide range of long- term data from a network of sites. Our physical, chemical and biological datasets – some spanning two decades – are a unique national resource that is improving our understanding of how and why environments change.”

EDB – “The Ethnobotanical Database of Bangladesh (EDB) provides access to information on plant species that occur in Bangladesh. EDB includes plants profile, ethnobotanical dictionary, indigenous knowledge, indigenous communities of Bangladesh and ethnobotanical uses of plants. Plants profile consists of authoritative taxonomic information, phyto-chemical constituents, and traditional uses of plants of tribal communities in Bangladesh.”

EEF – “The European Ecological Federation enables cooperation between European ecological societies in order to promote the scienceof ecology in Europe. It does this through: providing a forum for effective communication throughout the community of ecological scientists in Europe on matters of common interest; disseminating ecological knowledge through meetings, publications and other means; acting in an advisory, consultative and representative capacity in relation to European institutions; promoting collaborative activity on those matters where there is a pan-European context; [and] cooperating with other international organisations.”

EFI – European Forest Institute: “ We are an international organisation, established by European States: 28 European States have ratified the Convention on EFI. We have c.115 Associate and Affiliate Member organisations in 37 countries. Our Headquarters is in Joensuu, Finland, and we also have offices in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Spain and Sweden, as well as project offices in Malaysia and China.”

EFN – “European Forest Network (EFN) is an unofficial network of national forest societies and associations of Europe. The main goal is to promote the exchange of information relevant to forests, forestry and forest policy among its members. The societies eligible to become members of the EFN are those which best represent, in each country, the comprehensive interest of people engaged directly and indirectly in the sustainable use of forest resources.”

EIS – “Environmental impact statement — A document required of federal agencies by the National Environmental Policy Act (P.L.91-190) for major projects or administration- initiated legislative proposals significantly affecting the environment. A tool for decision making, it describes the positive and negative effects of the undertaking and assesses alternative actions.” (Womach, 2005) Now commonly required by local planning authorities.

ELF – Earth Liberation Front, an eco-terrorist organization. [See 2001, Arson)

ELISA – “ an acronym for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, which is a serological test in which antibodies are used to detect plant viruses.” (the NCPN glossary)

ENA – “ENA (European Nurserystock Association) is an organization representing nurserystock producers’ organizations all over Europe. Considering the need for closer economic, social and cultural cooperation at European level; conscious of their responsibility towards the nursery stock profession and mindful to obtain and further the health and prosperity of the nursery stock industry, European organisations representing nurserystock producers have established a European association, called ENA.”

EOL – “The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) began in 2007 with the bold idea to provide “a webpage for every species.” EOL brings together trusted information from resources across the world such as museums, learned societies, expert scientists, and others into one massive database and a single, easy-to-use online portal at EOL.org. While the idea to create an online species database had existed prior to 2007, Dr. Edward O. Wilson’s 2007 TED Prize speech was the catalyst for the EOL you see today. The site went live in February 2008 to international media attention.The initiative was started with generous seed funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur and Alfred P. Sloan Foundations. The five original EOL cornerstone institutions included the Field Museum, Harvard University, the Marine Biological Laboratory, Missouri Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution.”

EOLSS – “UNESCO – Encyclopedia Of Life Support Systems (UNESCO- EOLSS) One of the largest e-Books repositories on the Web, dedicated to the health, maintenance and future of the web of life on planet Earth, focusing on the complex connections among all the myriad aspects from natural and social sciences through water, energy, land, food, agriculture, environment, biodiversity, health, education, culture,engineering and technology, management, development and environmental security carrying knowledge for our times. It has been developed under the auspices of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is regarded as the world’s largest comprehensive professional publication carrying state- of-the-art, high quality, peer reviewed, thematically organized archival content in many traditional disciplines and interdisciplinary subjects with including the coverage of trans-disciplinary pathways. The contributions are from thousands of scholars from over 100 countries and edited by more than 350 subject experts. It also includes up-to- date coverage of various aspects of sustainable development that are relevant to the current state of the world.”

EPA – “Environmental Protection Agency — An independent federal government agency established in 1970 and charged with coordinating effective governmental action concerning the environment, including setting standards, promulgating and enforcing regulations, and initiating and implementing environmental programs. Two areas of jurisdiction that most directly affect agricultural production are the registration of pesticides required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA; P.L. 80-104, as amended; 7U.S.C. 136 et seq.) and implementation of the Clean Water Act (P.L. 92-500, as amended; 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387).[http://www.epa.gov].” (Womach, 2018) AMEND: A polity determined dangerous for business and policy-makers, and thus under deconstruction by governing majorities (2018)

EPPC – refers to different regional groups that identify as Exotic Pest Plant Councils

EPPO – European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization: “ EPPO is an intergovernmental organization responsible for European cooperation in plant health. Founded in 1951 by 15 European countries, EPPO now has 51 members, covering almost all countries of the European and Mediterranean region. Its objectives are to protectplants, to develop international strategies against the introduction and spread of dangerous pests and to promote safe and effective control methods. As a Regional Plant Protection Organization, EPPO also participates in global discussions on plant health organized by FAO and the IPPC Secretariat. Finally, EPPO has produced a large number of standards and publications on plant pests, phytosanitary regulations, and plant protection products.”

EPSO – “The European Plant Science Organisation, is an independent academic organisation currently representing 72 institutional members bringing together more than 220 research institutes, departments and universities from 30 countries in Europe and beyond. Its mission is to improve the impact and visibility of plant science in Europe. EPSO’s top priorities are to facilitate the understanding of plant science, to boost funding for basic research and to coordinate research activities at the national and European levels – and beyond.” EPSO initiated 18 May as International Fascination of Plants Day., i.e. FoPD

EQIP – “Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) — A program created by the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) to provide primarily cost-sharing assistance, but also technical and educational assistance, aimed at promoting production and environmental quality, and optimizing environmental benefits. The program replaces the Agricultural Conservation Program, the Water Quality Incentives Program, the Great Plains Conservation Program, and the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program. EQIP was reauthorized in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 1241) at $0.4 billion in mandatory spending in FY2002 and rising to $1.3 billion in FY2007.” (Womach, 2005)ESA – Ecological Society of America: “The Nation’s largest community of professional Ecologists.” A major organization that publishes significant journals (such as EcologyEcological Monographs, etc), but fails to define itself or describe its purpose and mission on the website.

ESA – “Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 — P.L. 93-205, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), protects species and the ecosystems on which they depend. The ESA is administered primarily by the Fish and Wildlife Service (and by NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), for certain marine species). These agencies list species of domestic plants and animals at risk of extinction as either “endangered” or “threatened” according to the degree of risk. Over 1,000 species have been listed. The ESA has been controversial because: (1) its standards of protection are substantive rather than procedural, and have occasionally prevented activities that would jeopardize a designated species; or (2) because other laws often lack strict substantive provisions the ESA often becomes a battleground by default over larger controversies concerning resource scarcities or altered ecosystems. How the ESA affects farmers and others depends on the listed species, the locale, the nature and health of the ecosystem, the ownership of the land, etc. On private land, ESA prohibits takings of individuals of protected species and requires agencies providing any federal service (such as permitting, increasing irrigation flows, or loans) to ensure the action will not adversely affect critical habitat.” (Womach, 2005)

ESA – “Welcome to the Epiphyllum Society of America! We are an international group of hobbyists who grow and enjoy epiphytic cactus hybrids, commonly known as “epiphyllums,” “orchid cacti,” or “jungle cacti.” We promote cultivation of Epiphyllums and other epiphytic cactus species, and provided support and education to growers. ESA administers the International Registry for hybrids and species of the Tribe Hylocereeae”.


EI – “Erosion (erodibility) index (EI) — The erosion (sometimes called erodibility) index is created by dividing potential erosion (from allsources except gully erosion) by the T value, which is the rate of soil erosion above which long term productivity may be adversely affected. The erodibility index is used in conjunction with conservation compliance and the Conservation Reserve Program. For example, one of the eligibility requirements for the CRP is that land have an EI greater than 8.” (Womach, 2005)

ELS – “Extra-long staple cotton — ELS cotton, like upland cotton, is eligible for marketing assistance loans and loan deficiency payments (LDPs). The national loan rate for ELS cotton under the 2002 farm bill is $0.7977 per pound. ELS cotton, in contrast to upland cotton, does not qualify for direct payments or counter-cyclical payments. For purposes of federal support, the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 101-171, Sec.1001) defines ELS cotton. ELS cotton also is called American Pima and was once called American Egyptian cotton, this cotton has a staple length of 1-3/8″ or more, is characterized by fineness and high fiber strength, and is used in high-value products such as sewing thread and expensive apparel. The name Pima was applied in honor of the Pima Indians who helped raise the cotton on USDA experimental farms in Arizona in the early 1900s. ELS cotton accounts for less than 5% ofU.S. cotton production. It is grown chiefly in California, with small acreages in west Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.” (Womach, 2005)

e-RA – “The Electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA) is being developed to hold metadata and data from the long-term experiments, the Insect Survey and the ECN. In time this will allow ready access to the large volume of data that has been accumulated at Rothamsted since 1843. “ex – “from”, indicates a source

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • EBN – Ebenaceae – dicot
  • ECD – Ecdeiocoleaceae – monocot
  • ECM – Eucommiaceae – dicot
  • ECR – Eucryphiaceae – dicot
  • ELC – Elaeocarpaceae – dicot
  • ELE – Elaeagnaceae – dicot
  • ELO – Elodeaceae – monocot
  • ELP – Elaphoglossaceae – pteridophyte
  • ELT – Elatinaceae – dicot
  • EMB – Emblingiaceae – dicot
  • EMP – Empetraceae – dicot
  • EPC – Epacridaceae – dicot
  • EPH – Ephedraceae – gymnosperm
  • EPM – Eupomatiaceae – dicot
  • EPR** – Euphroniaceae – dicot
  • EPT – Eupteleaceae – dicot
  • EQU – Equisetaceae – pteridophyte
  • ERE* – Eremolepidaceae – dicot
  • ERI – Ericaceae – dicot
  • ERM – Eremosynaceae – dicot
  • ERO – Eriocaulaceae – monocot
  • ERP – Erythropalaceae – dicot
  • ERS – Eriospermaceae – monocot
  • ERX – Erythroxylaceae – dicot
  • ESC – Escalloniaceae – dicot
  • EUP – Euphorbiaceae – dicot
  • EUR – Euryalaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

E – 1-letter symbol for Glutamic acid ECM – Extracellular matrixEIN

EM- Electron Microscopy

EMP – pathway – Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (glycolosis)

ENOD – gene – EPSPSER – Endoplasmic reticulum ERFETR

ETS – Electron Transport System


  • E – Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
  • EA – National Museums of Kenya, East African Herbarium, Nairobi, Kenya
  • EAP – Herbario Paul C. Standley, Escuela AgrÌcola Panamericana, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • EAR – Earlham College Herbarium, Richmond, IndianaE
  • CH – Elmira College Herbarium, Elmira, College, Elmira, New York
  • ECK – Eckert Herbarium, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, New York
  • ECON – Economic Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • ECSC – East Central University Herbarium, Ada, Oklahoma
  • EHCV – Emory and Henry College Herbarium, Emory, Virginia
  • EIU – Stover-Ebinger Herbarium, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois
  • EKY – Eastern Kentucky University Herbarium, Richmond, Kentucky
  • ELRG – Central Washington University Herbarium, Ellensburg, Washington
  • EMC – Eastern Michigan University Herbarium, Ypsilanti, Michigan
  • ENCB – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City D. F., Mexico
  • ENLC – Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition, Ely, Nevada
  • EOSC – Eastern Oregon University Herbarium, La Grande, Oregon
  • EPHR – Snow College Herbarium, Ephraim, Utah
  • ER – University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
  • ERE – Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia
  • ETSU – East Tennessee State University Herbarium, Johnson City, Tennessee
  • EVMU – Everhart Museum Herbarium, Scranton, Pennsylvania


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications…

FAC – “Food and Agriculture Councils (FACs) — These councils were instituted in 1982 by USDA to function as interagency coordinating groups on three levels: national, state, and local. The state FACs are composed of senior level officials of individual USDA agencies within each state, and in the mid-90s the played a major role in managing the reorganization of USDA’s field office structure. Local FACs have consisted of USDA representatives at county or area-wide levels; and a national FAC at USDA’s Washington headquarters has served as a liaison with the state and local FACs.” (Womach, 2005)

FAIR – “Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act of 1996 — P.L. 104-127 (April 4, 1996) was the omnibus 1996 farm bill that removed the link between income support payments and farm prices. It authorized 7-year production flexibility contract payments that provided participating producers with fixed government payments independent of current farm prices and production. The law specified the total amount of money to be made available through contract payments under production flexibility contracts for each fiscal year from 1996 through 2002.” (Womach, 2005)

FAO – “The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations… is a specialised agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy.”

FAR – “The Mission of the Floral Association of the Rockies shall be to advance the sale and service of floral products and related items and to encourage their distribution, care and handling by marketing, promoting and educating the industry and the general public. And to promote integrity, professionalism, and camaraderie within the floral industry, while progressively addressing industry, technology and market trends.”

FATUS – “Acronym for Foreign Agricultural Trade System of the United States, FATUS is a system of more than 200 trade codes created and maintained by USDA’s Economic Research Service to summarizeU.S. agricultural trade in a form accessible to the public. FATUS codes aggregate more than 4,000 import and 2,000 export, 10-digit agricultural trade codes from the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of theU.S. (HTS), under which all U.S. trade data are originally collected by the Census Bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce. FATUS groupings are similar to, but tend to be more detailed than, those provided to the public through the BICO data system maintained by USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service. See also BICO, and U.S. Trade Internet System.” (Womach, 2005)

FCC – First Class Certificate of American Orchid Society. “The highest flower-quality award, awarded to orchid species or hybrids scoring 90 points or more on a 100-point scale.”

FCIC – “Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) — The wholly owned federal corporation within USDA that administers the federal crop insurance program. The 1996 farm bill (P.L.104-127) created an Office Of Risk Management, which USDA has renamed the Risk Management Agency, and which houses the FCIC.” (Womach, 2005)

FERM – “Forest Ecosystem Restoration and Management (FERM) — System designed to facilitate the recovery or re-establishment of native ecosystems to conditions consistent with their evolutionary environments in order to prevent further degradation and conservenative plants and animals. Related to rehabilitation, reclamation, and bioremediation.” (Womach, 2005)

FERN – “The Food & Environment Reporting Network (FERN) is the first and only independent, nonprofit news organization that produces award-winning, high-impact investigative and explanatory reporting on food, agriculture, and environmental health through partnerships with regional and national media outlets. Through our impartial “watchdog” journalism we seek to shine a light on injustices and abuses of power within the food system — both corporate and governmental — while taking full measure of the true impact food and agriculture have on public health and the environment. FERN uncovers, explores, and explains news that is critical to the public’s right to know about food, agriculture, and environmental health.”fern – “Fern is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) and a Dutch Stichting created in 1995 to keep track of the European Union’s involvement in forests and coordinate NGO activities at the European level. Our work centres on forests and forest peoples’ rights and the issues that affect them such as trade and investment and climate change. All of our work is done in close collaboration with social and environmental organisations and movements across the world. The name Fern was chosen because ferns are one of the few species that grow in all forests.” (Note “fern” is not an acronym. This organization is included to distinguish it from FERN – see listed above)

FESPB – “The Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology was founded in 1978 and today it is Europe’s largest and most widely representative society of Plant Scientists. The aims of FESPB are to advance research, education, and the exchange of information amongst plant biologists within Europe and beyond, and to support the publication of the results of research through its affiliated international journals: Journal of Experimental Botany, Journal of Plant PhysiologyPlant Physiology and BiochemistryPhysiologia Plantarum, and Plant Biology.”

FFA – “Future Farmers of America is the premier youth development organization for agricultural education students that provides life- changing experiences for its members. Those experiences are driven by a strong mission and a compelling vision.”FFI – “Established over a century ago, Fauna & Flora International (FFI) was the world’s first international wildlife conservation organisation. Our mission is to conserve threatened species and ecosystems worldwide, choosing solutions that are sustainable, based on sound science, and which take into account human needs.”

FHS – “The Forest History Society is a nonprofit library and archive dedicated to collecting, preserving, and disseminating forest and conservation history for all to use. The Society links the past to the future while reminding us about our important forest heritage. ¶As part of our mission, FHS is continually seeking innovative ways of enhancing its programs in research, publication, and education, and new methods for promoting the study of environmental history.Towards that end, you’ll now find us on Facebook and Twitter and blogging at Peeling Back the Bark. We invite you to take a tour of FHS, and then explore the website and discover your forest heritage!”

FGIS – The Federal Grain Inspection Service develops and enforces standards for grain condition, quality, and purity.

FIP – Forestry Incentives Program. “Forestry Incentive Program (FIP)— Initiated in 1975 and administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, FIP provided financial assistance for up to 65% of the cost of silvicultural activities on nonindustrial private forest land of generally less than 1,000 acres. The program was terminated in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171), and replaced with the Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP).” (Womach, 2005)

FLEP – “Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) — The Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) was adopted in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 8002) as an amendment to the Cooperative ForestryAssistance Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-313; 16 U.S.C. 2101 et seq.). FLEP replaces the Stewardship Incentives Program (SIP) and the Forestry Incentives Program (FIP). FLEP is optional in each state and is a voluntary program for non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners. It provides for technical, educational, and cost-share assistance to promote sustainability of the NIPF forests. The law provided FLEP with $100 million from the CCC through FY07. Half of these funds were diverted to wildfire control in 2003, and $40 million of those funds have not been replenished and the spending authority has been cancelled.” (Womach, 2005)

FLOC – “Founded in 1967, FLOC (United States of America) was initially organized by Baldemar Velasquez, a migrant worker who sought to improve the working conditions of others like him by creating a mobile organizing base that could move along with workers as the seasons changed. Now, FLOC has over 20,000 members and works in both the United States and Mexico.”FoPD – International Fascination of Plants Day, 18 May. (see EPSO)

FNPS – “The Mission of the Florida Native Plant Society is to promote the preservation, conservation, and restoration of the native plants and native plant communities of Florida. ¶The Society fulfills this mission through: Support for conservation land acquisition; Land management that enhances habitat suitability for native plants; Education; Public policies that protect our native flora, especially rare species; Research on native plant species; [and] Encouragement of local landscaping practices and policies that preserve Florida’s native plant heritage.”

FOR – “Farmer-Owned Grain Reserve — A program, established under the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, designed to buffer sharp price movements and to provide reserves against production shortfalls by allowing wheat and feed grain farmers to participate in a subsidized grain storage program. Farmers who placed their grain in storage received an extended non-recourse loan for at least 3 years. Under certain conditions, interest on the loan could be waived and farmerscould receive annual storage payments from the government. The 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) repealed this program.” (Womach, 2005)

FPI – Food Plants International “Food Plants International wasformally established in 1999, but its origins go back to the 1970’s. Bruce French, founder of FPI, was living in Papua New Guinea at the time and noticed that many villagers suffered disease and malnutrition, often while surrounded by nutritious food plants.The people who make up FPI are based in Tasmania, Australia. We are all volunteers who wish to make a difference to the three billion people of the world whose most important concern each day is having enough nutritious food to eat.

FPL – “At the turn of the 19th century, logging had proceeded across much of the eastern United States and demands for wood products were rising rapidly. In 1910, the Forest Products Laboratory (USDA) was established in Madison, Wisconsin, to find ways to conserve scarce timber resources. For almost 100 years, our mission has been to use our Nation’s wood resources wisely and efficiently, while at the same time keeping our forests healthy. Our research began with preserving railroad ties, and now we are venturing into nanotechnology and finding ways that our research can contribute to mitigating the impacts of climate change. The FPL research staff has the experience and expertise needed to make us world renowned among forest products research organizations and an unbiased source of information. FPL researchers have longevity, with an average of 20 years of experience in their related fields.”

FPP – Farmland Protection Program (FPP) — See Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program (FRPP).

FPP – “Forest Peoples Programme supports the rights of peoples who live in forests and depend on them for their livelihoods. We work to create political space for forest peoples to secure their rights, control their lands and decide their own futures.”

FPS – “The Forest Products Society is an international not-for-profit technical association founded in 1947 to provide an information network for all segments of the forest products industry. Membership is open to all interested individuals and organizations, representing a broad range of professional interests including private and public research and development, industrial management and production, marketing, education, government, engineering and consulting. The Society convenes technical conferences, produces several journals including the peer-reviewed Forest Products Journal and publishes books on topics of relevance to the forest products industry.”

FRPP – “Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program — The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) renamed the Farmland Protection Program (FPP) to the Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program in 2003 to accurately reflect the resources eligible to participate in the program. The program established by the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) to fund the purchase of conservation easements of 170,000-340,000 acres of land having prime or unique soil or other desirable production qualities that are threatened by urban development.” (Womach, 2005)

FS The US Forest Service: “We are a multi-faceted agency that manages and protects 154 national forests and 20 grasslands in 43 states and Puerto Rico. The agency’s mission is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations. ¶We have an elite wildland firefighting team and the world’s largest forestry research organization. Our experts provide technical and financial help to state and local government agencies, businesses, private landowners and work government-to-government with tribes to help protect and manage non-federal forest and associated range and watershed lands.¶We augment our work through partnerships with public and private agencies that help us plant trees, improve trails, educate the public, and improve conditions in wildland/urban interfaces and rural areas, just to name a few. Our team also promotes sustainable forestmanagement and biodiversity conservation internationally. ¶Gifford Pinchot, first Chief of the Forest Service, summed up the mission of the Forest Service: “to provide the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people in the long run.”

FSC – Forest Stewardship Council: “FSC is an independent, non-profit organization that protects forests for future generations. We are an open, membership-led organization that sets standards under which forests and companies are certified. Our membership consists of three equally weighted chambers — environmental, economic, and social — to ensure the balance and the highest level of integrity.”

FSWR – “Food Security Wheat Reserve (FSWR) — Title III of the Agricultural Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-494) established a reserve of up to 4 million metric tons of wheat for use in meeting emergency food needs in developing countries. This reserve generally was to be used to meet famine or other urgent or extraordinary relief requirements during periods of tight supplies and high prices when commodities are not available under the provisions of P.L. 480. The FSWR was replaced by the Food Security Commodity Reserve under the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127, Sec. 225), which has since been renamed the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust. The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 3202) extended the Trust through 2007.” (Womach, 2005)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

f. – filius, indicates a child (son) of someone

f. – Form, or Forma, a taxonomic category for unique phenotypes that occur sporadically in natural populations.


Fil., fils. – in flower descriptions, the abbreviation for filament (which is the stalk of the stamen).

Fl., fls. – flower, or flowers, commonly used in floral descriptions.

FYM – Farm Yard Manure

Fr., frs. – standard abbreviation for fruit, fruits.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • FAB – Fabaceae – dicot
  • FAG – Fagaceae – dicot
  • FCO – Francoaceae – dicot
  • FIC – Ficoidaceae – dicot
  • FLC – Flacourtiaceae – dicot
  • FLG – Flagellariaceae – monocot
  • FLN – Flindersiaceae – dicot
  • FNK – Frankeniaceae – dicot
  • FOE – Foetidaceae – dicot
  • FOQ – Fouquieriaceae – dicot
  • FUM – Fumariaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

F – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid phenylalanine

FA – molecular – Fatty Acids

FAME – “This process hydrolyzes fatty acids from phospholipids, triacylglycerols, sterols, and various other lipid structures and then adds a methyl group to the carboxyl group of fatty acids which forms a methyl ester that acts as a label for the GC, which then reads andidentifies those fatty acids. The system was termed FAME analysis since it utilizes fatty acid methyl esters.” “Using FAME Analysis to Compare, Differentiate, and Identify Multiple Nematode Species”. Nicholas S. Sekora,1 Kathy S. Lawrence, Paula Agudelo, Edzard van Santen, and John A. McInroy, 2009. J Nematol 41(3): 163–173. PMID: 22736811 PMCID: PMC3380492. By characterizing the fatty acid profiles, researchers can establish identities and stages of various organisms.

FCA – protein – Flowering Time Control Protein

FD – FerredoxinFe – element

FIS – gene – Fertilization-Independent Seed

FISH – fluorescence in situ hybridization, a technique that utilizes fluorescing probes (molecules) to mark/identify/localize specific sequences in chromosomes – see Wikipedia.

FLAVIN KELCH F BOX 1 (FKF1) – https://http://www.sciencedirect.com/ topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/flavins)


FLORIGEN/FLORIGEN – A gene and protein involved in floral initiation. (Singer, 2018)

FLOWERING C/FLOWERING C – A gene and protein involved in regulating flowering, through impacting formation of FLORIGEN. See also COLDAIR RNA and COOLAIR RNA (Singer, 2018)


FRIGIDA/FRIGIDA – a gene and protein involved in temperature- based regulation of flowering, perhaps by impacting production of FLOWERING C. (Singer, 2018)


  • F – Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois
  • FARM – Longwood University Herbarium, Farmville, Virginia
  • FAU – Florida Atlantic University Herbarium, Davie, Florida
  • FCQ – Universidad Nacional de Asunción, San Lorenzo, Paraguay
  • FH – Farlow Reference Library and Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • FHI – Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
  • FHKSC – Fort Hays State University Herbarium, Hays, Kansas
  • FHL – Friday Harbor Laboratories Herbarium, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Washington
  • FHO – Daubeny Herbarium, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UKFI – Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università , Florence Italy
  • FLAS – University of Florida Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida
  • FLD – Fort Lewis College Herbarium, Durango, Colorado
  • FLSP – Oscar Scherer State Park Herbarium, Osprey, Florida
  • FMC – North Museum of Natural History and Science Herbarium, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
  • FMNH – Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois
  • FMUH – Francis Marion University Herbarium, Florence, South Carolina
  • FNFR – Fishlake National Forest Herbarium, Richfield, Utah
  • FNPS – South Florida Collections Management Center Herbarium, Everglades National Park, Homestead, Florida
  • FPF – Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest Pathology Herbarium, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • FR – Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • FRU – National Academy of Science, Kyrgyzsta, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
  • FSC – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Fresno, California
  • FSCL – Florida Southern College Herbarium, Lakeland, Florida
  • FSSR – Forest Service, USDA Herbarium, Atlanta, Georgia
  • FSU – R. K. Godfrey Herbarium, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
  • FT – Centro Studi Erbario Tropicale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy
  • FTG – Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Herbarium, Coral Gables, Florida
  • FUGR – Furman University Herbarium, Greenville, South Carolina
  • FVCC – Flathead Valley Community College Herbarium, Kalispell, Montana
  • FWVA – Fairmont State University Herbarium, Fairmont, West Virginia


Associations and Organizations…

GAGGA – “The Global Alliance for Green and Gender Action (GAGGA) brings together the Fondo Centroamericano de Mujeres (FCAM), Both ENDS and Mama Cash. With FCAM, a Central American grassroots fund based in Nicaragua with extensive experience in supporting women’s rights groups, GAGGA sets out to strengthen and unify the capabilities of grassroots groups and movements to lobby and advocate with and for women to claim their rights to water, to food and to a clean, healthy and safe environment.”

GBIF – “the Global Biodiversity Information Facility—is an international network and research infrastructure funded by the world’s governments and aimed at providing anyone, anywhere, open access to data about all types of life on Earth. GBIF arose from a 1999 recommendation by the Biodiversity Informatics Subgroup of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Megascience Forum. Its report concluded that “An international mechanism is needed to make biodiversity data and information accessible worldwide”, arguing that this mechanism could produce many economic and social benefits and enable sustainable development by providing sound scientific evidence.”

GBIS/I – Gene Bank Information System, see IPK

GCA – ”The Garden Club of America is a national leader in the fields of horticulture, conservation, and civic improvement. Founded in 1913, The Garden Club of America is a volunteer nonprofit organization comprised of 200 member clubs and approximately 18,000 club members throughout the country. GCA members passionately devotetheir energies and expertise to a wide array of projects in their communities and across the nation.“

GEM – The Germplasm Enhancement of Corn project involves the activity of two hundred institutions and over 30 private companies with the goal of increasing corn (maize) productivity and genetic diversity.GFAR – Global Forum on Agricultural Research: “GFAR is the unique multi-stakeholder global forum on agricultural research and innovation. GFAR is an open, voluntary forum and a movement for change. GFAR is a networked organization, made up of Partners working together, through collective advocacy and actions, to shape the future of agriculture and food and their role in achieving sustainable development.”

GfÖ – “The GfÖ (Gesellschaft für Ökologie) is an independent, nonprofit scientific organisation founded in 1970. We aim to: promote basic and applied ecological science; encourage collaborative work of all ecological disciplines; improve communication among ecologists in German speaking countries and beyond; [and] facilitate education in ecology at universities and institutes of higher education”

GFVGA – “As the state’s number two agricultural cash crop, most Georgia fruits and vegetables are grown for the fresh market to be sold and consumed in other states. The GFVGA provides programs and services to the membership designed to increase production efficiencies, provide educational opportunities, promote new markets, monitor legislation, encourage applied research and improve communications among GFVGA members and industry suppliers.Enjoy the information available to you on this site and if you have any questions, please feel free to contact us.”

GIs – “Geographical indications — Geographical indications are place names, or words closely associated with places that are used to identify wines, spirits, and certain other, mainly food and agricultural,products. Examples include Champagne, Idaho potatoes, Roquefort cheese, Scotch whiskey, Swiss watches, or Tequila. The WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) says geographical indications in general should be protected, at least with a view to avoiding unfair competition and consumers being misled. Currently, TRIPS accords a higher level protection to geographical indications for wines and spirits (even if consumers are not misled or if using the names does not constitute an act of unfair competition). In WTO trade negotiations, some countries have proposed extending the higher level of protection to other food and agricultural products.” (Womach, 2018)

GNPS – Georgia Native Plant Society: “To promote the stewardship and conservation of Georgia’s native plants and their habitats through education and with the involvement of individuals and organizations.”GPC – “The Global Plant Council (GPC) is a coalition of national, regional and international societies and affiliates representing plant, crop and agricultural and environmental sciences across the globe.The GPC seeks to bring together all those involved in plant and crop research, education and training, to facilitate the development of plant science for global challenges such as world hunger, energy, climate change, health and well-being, sustainability and environmental protection.”

GPC – Global Plant Clinic, the Plantwise program of CABI: “Created originally as a global resource for anyone interested in plant health, the Plantwise Knowledge Bank has become an essential tool for many professionals working each day to protect farmers against pests. This is an online and offline gateway to actionable plant health information and services – from pest diagnostic search tools to maps of pest locations and customized alerts on pest news about your area. It combines global and local open access data from leading experts working around the world in a dynamic and easily searchable way, so answers can become actions.”

GPCP – “Great Plains Conservation Program (GPCP) — This program, initiated in 1957, provided cost share and technical assistance to apply conservation on entire farms in 10 Great Plains states from the Dakotas and Montana to Texas and New Mexico. It was replaced by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) in the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127).” (Womach, 2018)

GPNPS – Great Plains Native Plant Society: “Mission: To engage in scientific research regarding plants of the Great Plains of North America; To carry on the scientific work begun by Claude Barr of Prairie Gem Ranch, Smithwick, South Dakota, which is to pursue greater knowledge, appreciation and understanding of the Great Plains of North America; To disseminate this knowledge through the creation of one or more educational botanic gardens of plants of the Great Plains, featuring but not limited to Barr’s discoveries; & To engage in any educational activities which may further public familiarity with plants of the Great Plains, their uses and enjoyment.”

GPPRCG – Green Plant PhylogenyResearch Coordination Group “The green plants provide food, shelter, and medicines and represent one of evolution’s great success stories. Their morphological and chemical diversity, and ecological dominance, are paramount among life’s lineages. An improved understanding of their phylogeny will not only allow the intellectual satisfaction of discovering the “roots” of this major component of the world’s biotic diversity, but will have important practical benefits as well. A well-supported and detailed phylogenetic framework is critical to the solution of major open questions such as the evolutionary origin of multicellularity, diversification of life-history strategies, the conquest of land, the nature of the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny, and modes of evolution at the molecular level. Addressing a phylogenetic study of this enormous scale has also necessitated improvements in data handling and analysis that have broad applicability to phylogenetic studies of other organisms.”

Considerable preliminary data were available, and we were clearly poised back in 1994 for rapid progress in this area due to recent technological, theoretical, and computational improvements. However, several obstacles remained. No mechanism existed for attacking this major effort in a cooperative, coordinated manner. Certain groups were over-studied, other groups nearly unknown. Data sets derived from different molecules and different morphological character systems rarely included the same basic taxa, thus they couldn’t be compared. Current analytical software, and the concepts behind it, needed improvements to handle analyses of this size and complexity, as did data storage and retrieval software. Standards for maintaining and adding to phylogenetic data bases, both morphological and molecular, needed to be discussed and then implemented.

GRAS – “Generally recognized as safe — A regulatory category created for a group of food additives that were exempted from the more rigorous regulatory requirements for food additives in the 1958 Food Additives Amendment (P.L. 85-929)to the Food Drug and Cosmetics Act of 1938 (21 U.S.C. 321 et seq.). A substance is accorded GRAS status if qualified experts generally agree that science has shown it to be safe in food under the conditions of its intended use.” (Womach, 2018)

GRIN – “In 1990, the U.S. Congress authorized establishment of a National Genetic Resources Program (NGRP). It is the NGRP’s responsibility to: acquire, characterize, preserve, document, and distribute to scientists, germplasm of all lifeforms important for food and agricultural production. The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) web server provides germplasm information about plants, animals, microbes and invertebrates. This program is withinthe U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service.” See also NGRAC, NGRP) (Womach, 2005)

GRP – “Grasslands Reserve Program (GRP) — The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec 2401), authorizes enrollment of 2 million acres of restored or improved grassland, range land and pastureland under temporary and permanent easements, or contracts of at least 10 years. Enrolled land must be in parcels that exceed 40 acres. Technical assistance is provided to restore grasslands, with funding from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). It also provides cost sharing payments at 75% to restore disturbed grasslands and 90% to protect virgin grasslands. (Womach, 2018) [www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/GRP].

GSC – “The Genetics Society of China (GSC) is an independent, national non-profit organization engaged in genetics teaching and research. The purpose of the Society is to unite and be a point of contact for all members working in the field of genetics, to promote the prosperity and development of genetics, to promote the popularization of genetics and genetics education in Chinese culture, to develop talent, and to enhance and promote the integration of science, technology and economy in China.” (GPC website)

GSFA – “The purpose of Georgia State Florists’ Association is four fold: To educate individuals within the industry; To lend credibility to the floral industry through certification and continuing education; To provide an industry specific networking venue for the members and floral associates interested in GSFA; [and] To provide recognition for those who give of themselves, their knowledge and their vision to the industry and the association.”

GSPC – “An international initiative for plant conservation was first proposed at the International Botanical Congress in 1999. A concerned group of botanists (the Gran Canaria Group) took the idea forward and developed the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) which, in 2002 was adopted by the world’s governments as a programme under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). “As the GSPC states: “Without plants, there is no life. The functioning of the planet, and our survival, depends on plants. The Strategy seeks to halt the continuing loss of plant diversity.”

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • GAR – Garryaceae – dicot
  • GCD – Glaucidiaceae – dicot
  • GEL** – Gelsemiaceae – dicot
  • GEN – Gentianaceae – dicot
  • GEO – Geosiridaceae – monocot
  • GER – Geraniaceae – dicot
  • GGR – Gymnogrammitaceae – pteridophyte
  • GIS* – Gisekiaceae – dicot
  • GLB – Globulariaceae – dicot
  • GLC – Gleicheniaceae – pteridophyte
  • GMD* – Grammitidaceae – pteridophyte
  • GMM – Grammitaceae – pteridophyte
  • GNE – Gnetaceae – gymnosperm
  • GNK – Ginkgoaceae – gymnosperm
  • GNN – Gunneraceae – dicot
  • GNS – Gonostylaceae – dicot
  • GOD – Goodeniaceae – dicot
  • GOM – Gomortegaceae – dicot
  • GOU – Goupiaceae – dicot
  • GRB – Grubbiaceae – dicot
  • GRI** – Griseliniaceae – dicot
  • GRM – Gramineae – monocot
  • GRS – Grossulariaceae – dicot
  • GRY – Greyiaceae – dicot
  • GSL – Geissolomataceae – dicot
  • GSN – Gesneriaceae – dicot
  • GTZ – Goetzeaceae – dicot
  • GUT – Guttiferae – dicot
  • GYR – Gyrostemonaceae – dicot

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

G – in floral formulae, Gynoecium (collective for pistils)

GSOB – Gold-spotted Oak Borer

GWSS – Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) “GWSS feeds on plants through straw-like mouthparts inserted into the xylem tissue which conducts water throughout the plant. Because nutrients are diluted in xylem fluid, GWSS must process large volumes to meet nutritional needs. Thus, this pest produces copious amounts of watery excreta and are a social nuisance as the liquid rains down from large populations feeding on ornamental trees. In infested citrus orchards, tree canopies take on a white-washed appearance by mid- summer due to the buildup of residues after the evaporation of this watery excreta. Even more important is the capacity for the GWSS to acquire and spread a plant pathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa.Different strains of this bacterium induce severe diseases in many agricultural and ornamental plants. The best known of these maladies is Pierce’s disease of grapevines. In southern California, GWSS spreads the Pierce’s disease bacterium and a new strain of X. fastidiosa that induces a lethal disease of oleander named oleander leaf scorch. Other crops at risk include almonds (almond leaf scorch), and alfalfa (alfalfa dwarf), which are infected by the same strain of X.f. that induces Pierce’s disease, and potentially other ornamental and fruittrees.” (Quoted from the CISR website, March 2018)

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

G – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Glycine

GA – hormone


Gh – Gossypium hirsutum, as noted in citation of genes, proteins, viruses, etc.

GFP – Green Fluorescent Protein… “a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.[2][3] Although many other marine organisms have similar green fluorescent proteins, GFP traditionally refers to the protein first isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria In cell and molecular biology, the GFP gene isfrequently used as a reporter of expression.[5] It has been used in modified forms to make biosensors…” Wikipedia, 2018


GIGANTEA (GI) https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural- and-biological-sciences/gigantea

GISH – Genomic in situ hybridization, a technique that allows painting and distinguishing of parental genomes in interspecific hybrids.

Gln – abbreviation for the amino acid Glutamine

GLOBOSA (GLO)Glu – abbreviation for Glutamic acid

Gly – abbreviation for the amino acid Glycine

GMGm – Glycine max, as referenced in citations of proteins, genes, viruses, etc., i.e.

GmMYB-G20-1GMO – Genetically-modified organism

GNA – Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (gene and protein, a lectin)





GURTs – “Genetic use restriction technologies — A group of complex genetic transformations that insert a genetic “off switch” in plants to prevent the unauthorized practice of replanting saved seed and thus benefitting from unique genetic traits without providing any return to the company that created them. (i.e. Terminator seeds — A descriptive term for seeds that have been genetically engineered to produce a crop whose first generation produces sterile seeds, thus preventing a second generation from being grown from seeds saved from the first. This technology was developed under a cooperative research and development agreement between the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and a private seed company. Supporters of the technology state that it is a way to build patent protection directly into high-value, genetically engineered crop varieties and thus recoup high research investment costs. Opponents maintain that the technology unfairly disadvantages farmers in developing countries who rely on saved seed for replanting and for developing locally adapted varieties, and also haspotentially harmful environmental and public health effects.” (Womach, 2018)

GV – Gentian Violet


  • G – Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • GABAS – Centre d’Étude et de Conservation des Resources Végétales, Bayonne, France
  • GAP – Conservatoire Botanique National Alpin, Gap, France
  • GAS – Georgia Southern University Herbarium, Statesboro, Georgia
  • GAT – Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Germany
  • GB – Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden
  • GC – University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
  • GCNP – Grand Canyon National Park Museum Collection Herbarium, Grand Canyon, Arizona
  • GDOR – Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria, Genoa, Italy
  • GE – Università di Genova Italy Genoa
  • GENT – Gent University, Ghent, Belgium
  • GEO – Emory University Herbarium, Atlanta, Georgia
  • GESU – State University of New York Herbarium, SUNY Geneseo, Geneseo, New York
  • GFW – University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
  • GGB – Gesneriad Gardens Herbarium, Longmont, Colorado
  • GJO – Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria
  • GLA – Ted Baim Herbarium, George Landis Arboretum, Esperance, New York
  • GLEN – Rappahannock Community College Herbarium, Glenns, Virginia
  • GLM – Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Görlitz, Germany
  • GMS – Gilbert M. Smith Herbarium, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California
  • GMUF – Ted R. Bradley Herbarium, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia
  • GOD – Charterhouse School Museum Herbarium (nee Godalming, England) Berkeley, California
  • GOET-University of Göttingen Göttingen Germany
  • GRA – Schonland Herbarium Albany Museum, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
  • GRCH – George R. Cooley Herbarium, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York
  • GRI – Grinnell College Herbarium, Grinnel,l Iowa
  • GRJC – Grand Rapids Junior College Herbarium, Grand Rapids, Michigan
  • GRM – Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Grenoble, Grenoble France
  • GRO – State University of Groningen, Haren, Netherlands
  • GSMNP – Great Smoky Mountains National Park Herbarium, Gatlinburg, Tennessee
  • GSW – Georgia Southwestern State University Herbarium, Americus, Georgia
  • GVSC – Grand Valley State University Herbarium, Allendale, Michigan
  • GZU – Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Graz, Austria


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

HAB – Harmful Algal Blooms: From Wikipedia: “A harmful algal bloom (HAB) is an algal bloom that causes negative impacts to other organisms via production of natural toxins, mechanical damage to other organisms, or by other means. HABs are often associated with large-scale marine mortality events and have been associated with various types of shellfish poisonings Examples of common harmfuleffects of HABs include: 1 the production of neurotoxins which cause mass mortalities in fish, seabirds, sea turtles, and marine mammals; 2 human illness or death via consumption of seafood contaminated by toxic algae; 3 mechanical damage to other organisms, such as disruption of epithelial gill tissues in fish, resulting in asphyxiation; &oxygen depletion of the water column (hypoxia or anoxia) from cellular respiration and bacterial degradation.” Due to their negative economic and health impacts, HABs are often carefully monitored.”

HCC/AOS – Highly Commended Certificate from the American Orchid Society. “Awarded to orchid species or hybrids scoring 75 to 79 points inclusive on a 100-point scale.”

HCP – “Habitat conservation plans (HCPs) — Plans prepared under the Endangered Species Act (P.L. 93-205) by nonfederal parties wishing to obtain permits for incidental taking of threatened and endangered species. The number of HCPs has expanded enough in the last 5 years that there are concerns over cost, effectiveness, contributions to recovery, monitoring, and other issues.” (Womach, 2005)

HFF – “The Hardy Fern Foundation was established to introduce and test the world’s temperate ferns for hardiness and ornamental value and to build comprehensive collections for public display, information and education.”

HGA – Hobby Greenhouse Association (members only)

HIPS – “Welcome to the Historic Iris Preservation Society… Come with us down the garden path to explore the charm and delight of heirloom irises. Here you will find many resources and much information about historic irises. The Historic Iris Preservation Society is a group of folks from around the world who love and enjoy old irises and are striving to preserve them. We urge anyone interested in historic irises to consider a membership.”

HOS – “If you are a serious orchardist or perhaps a curious hobby gardener, the Home Orchard Society provides you with the best source of information and knowledge, mixed in the context of like-minded friendships, to make fruit growing an enriching experience. The Home Orchard Society, established in 1975, is a nonprofit educational organization dedicated to assisting both novice and expert fruit growers, preserving heirloom fruit varieties, and promoting the science, culture, and pleasure of growing fruit at home. Our original 59 charter members grew into this nonprofit, educational and self-help organization that today has well over 700 members scattered worldwide. The vision of “growing good fruit at home” has taken root.”

HPS – “The Hardy Plant Society/Mid-Atlantic Group is a not-for-profit volunteer organization for gardeners in the Mid-Atlantic region. We encourage gardeners – from beginners to professionals – to learn more about horticulture and to share skills, knowledge, and plants with each other.”

HRC – “Established in 1944, The Historical Records Committee is charged with encouraging members to conserve documents and photos pertinent to the history of the Ecological Society of America and ecology, and with making such records available to members, historians, biographers, and the public through its website and other communications.” (See also ESA)

HSA – “The Herb Society of America promotes herbs as valuable, useful, and essential parts of our lives. Throughout history we have valued their aesthetic, fragrant, medicinal, and culinary properties. Our print and digital resources, provide windows into herbal history and lore, growing tips, and techniques as well as details on many herbal uses.”

HSA – “The Holly Society of America, Inc. is an active, non-profit organization with members throughout the United States and numerous foreign countries. The purpose of the Society is to stimulate interest, promote research, and collect and disseminate information about the genus Ilex. “

HTFC – “The Hawai‛i Tropical Flower Council is your source for information on the marketing, design, availability, handling, and storage of Hawaii’s incomparable tropicals. We also sponsor research in crop development and shipping methods to help Hawaii maintain it’s status as the foremost supplier of exceptional tropical floral products. Using advanced horticultural techniques, 690 growers on 1,910 acres and in more than 27.6 million square feet of greenhouses and artificial shade support Hawaii’s nearly $70 million floral and nursery industry.”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

(H) – Homonym, see International Code of Nomenclature

HEL – Highly-erodible Land: “Land that is very susceptible to erosion, including fields that have at least 1/3 or 50 acres of soils with a natural erosion potential of at least 8 times their T value. About 104 million acres of cropland meet this definition of HEL, according to the 1997 National Resources Inventory. Farms cropping highly erodible land and under production flexibility contracts must be in compliance with a conservation plan that protects this cropland.” (Womach, 2005)

HLB – Huanglongbing, i.e. Greening Disease on Citrus. A debilitating bacterial disease that impacts the phloem of Citrus and causes a steady, irreversible decline in tree health.

hort. – horticultural (origin)

HUMULT – soil classification – a kind of Ultisol.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • HAE – Haemodoraceae – monocot
  • HAL – Haloragaceae – dicot
  • HAM – Hamamelidaceae – dicot
  • HCO – Hydrocotylaceae – dicot
  • HCS – Hippocastanaceae – dicot
  • HCT – Hectorellaceae – dicot
  • HCY – Hydrocaryaceae – dicot
  • HDC – Hydrocharitaceae – monocot
  • HDL** – Hydroleaceae – dicot
  • HDN – Hydnoraceae – dicot
  • HDR – Hydrangeaceae – dicot
  • HDS – Hydrastidaceae – dicot
  • HEL – Helleboraceae – dicot
  • HEM – Hemionitidaceae – pteridophyte
  • HER – Ehretiaceae – dicot
  • HLC – Heliconiaceae – monocot
  • HLC** – Heliconiaceae – monocot
  • HLM – Helminthostachyaceae – pteridophyte
  • HLS** – Halesiaceae – dicot
  • HLT – Heliotropaceae – dicot
  • HLW – Helwingiaceae – dicot
  • HMB – Humbertiaceae – dicot
  • HMP – Hymenophyllaceae – pteridophyte
  • HMR** – Hemerocallidaceae – monocot
  • HMT – Himantandraceae – dicot
  • HNG – Hanguanaceae – monocot
  • HOS* – Hostaceae – monocot
  • HOU – Humiriaceae – dicot
  • HPC – Hippocrateaceae – dicot
  • HPH – Halophytaceae – dicot
  • HPL – Hypolepidaceae – pteridophyte
  • HPS – Hymenophyllopsidaceae – pteridophyte
  • HPT – Hoplestigmataceae – dicot
  • HPU – Hippuridaceae – dicot
  • HPX – Hypoxidaceae – monocot
  • HRN – Hernandiaceae – dicot
  • HRQ – Henriqueziaceae – dicot
  • HRR** – Herreriaceae – monocot
  • HSC – Hypseocharitaceae – dicot
  • HSP** – Hesperocallidaceae – monocot
  • HST – Hydrostachyaceae – dicot
  • HUA – Huaceae – dicot
  • HUG – Hugoniaceae – dicot
  • HUP – Huperziaceae – pteridophyte
  • HYA** – Hyacinthaceae – monocot
  • HYC – Hypecoaceae – dicot
  • HYD – Hydrophyllaceae – dicot
  • HYD** – Hydatellaceae – monocot
  • HYP – Hypericaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

H – element – Hydrogen

H – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Histidine His – abbreviation for the amino acid Histidine HAMK

HFCS – H”High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) — HFCS is a natural sweetener created by converting glucose in corn starch to fructose . HFCS production expanded during the 1980s as a substitute for higher-cost beet and cane sugar used in soft drinks. HFCS-55 (55% fructose), which is as sweet as sugar, has almost completely replaced liquid sugar in beverages. HFCS-42 (42% fructose) is roughly 90% as sweet as sugar, and is mainly used in cereal, baking, dairy, and processed foods.” (Womach, 2005)

HSP – protein – Heat Shock Protein

Hv – Hordeum vulgare, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc., i.e. HvMYBGa


  • H – Finnish Museum of Natural History (University of Helsinki), Finland, Helsinki
  • HAC – Instituto de EcologÌa y Sistemática, Havana, Cuba
  • HAJB – Herbario Prof. Dr. J. Bisse, JardÌn Botánico Nacional, Havana, Cuba
  • HAL – University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
  • HAM – RBG Herbarium, Royal Botanical Gardens, Burlington, Ontario
  • HAS – Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
  • HAVI – Eastern Mennonite University Herbarium, Harrisonburg, Virginia
  • HAY – California State University Herbarium, California State University, East Bay, Hayward, California
  • HBA – National Botanic Garden of Latvia, Salaspils, Latvia
  • HBFH – Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute Herbarium, Fort Pierce, Florida
  • HBG – Herbarium Hamburgense, Biozentrum Klein-Flottbek, Hamburg, Germany
  • HCH – Hells Canyon Herbarium, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, Idaho
  • HCHM – Hope College Herbarium, Holland, Michigan
  • HCOA – College of the Atlantic and Acadia National Park Herbarium, Bar Harbor, Maine
  • HEID – University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
  • HEND Henderson State University Herbarium Arkadelphia Arkansas
  • HGAS – Guizhou Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China
  • HGCRL – Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Herbarium, Ocean Springs, Mississippi
  • HHH – Hoysradt Herbarium, Hartwick College, Oneonta ,New York
  • HIB – Wuhan Institute of Botany, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China
  • HIFP – French Institute of Pondicherry, Puducherry, India ”
  • HIRO – Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan;
  • HITBC – Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Xishuangbanna, People’s Republic of China
  • HL – Houghton Lake Wildlife Research Station Herbarium, Houghton Lake Heights, Michigan
  • HN – National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • HNH – Jesup Herbarium, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire
  • HNMN – Herbario Nacional de Nicaragua, Universidad Centroamericana, Managua, Nicaragua
  • HNT – Huntington Botanical Gardens Herbarium, The Huntington, San Marino, California
  • HNUB – Northeastern University Herbarium, Boston, Massachusetts
  • HNWP – Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai, People’s Republic of China
  • HNWU – Marvin A. Bichel Herbarium, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, Nebraska
  • HO – Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery Herbarium, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • HOH – Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
  • HPC – Howard Payne University Herbarium, Brownwood, Texas
  • HPH – Monroe County Department of Parks Herbarium, Monroe County Department of Parks, Rochester, New York
  • HPM – Houston Museum of Natural Science Herbarium, Houston, Texas
  • HPSU – Portland State University Herbarium, Portland, Oregon
  • HPU – High Point University Herbarium, High Point, North Carolina
  • HSC – Humboldt State University Herbarium, Arcata, California
  • HSU – Hardin-Simmons University Herbarium, Abilene, Texas
  • HTTU – Tennessee Technological University Herbarium, Cookeville, Tennessee
  • HUA – Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia, Medellín, Antioquia
  • HUBE – Golden West College Herbarium, Huntington Beach, California
  • HUCP – Pontifical Catholic University of Paran, Paran, Curitiba, Brazil
  • HUDC – Howard University Herbarium, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
  • HUEFS – Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil
  • HUJ – Hebrew University Israel, Jerusalem
  • HULE – National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, León, Nicaragua
  • HUNT – Huntington University Herbarium, Huntington University, Huntington, Indiana
  • HWBA – Benedictine College Herbarium, Atchison, Kansas
  • HXC – Hendrix College Herbarium, Conway, Arkansas


Associations and Organizations…

IAFN (RIFA) – International Analog Forestry Network: “Vision: The restoration of the life support systems of the planet through improved economic opportunities for rural populations. Mission: promote the application and appreciation of the techniques of analog forestry as a critical component of a new rural development paradigm. ¶The activities of the Network consist of four main programs. Capacity building: through our network of trainers, we cooperate with local farmers’ groups, agricultural and forestry technicians, and political decision-makers. Our trainings are based on the theory and practice of analog forestry for sustainable community development; Demonstration sites: these act as the seeds of restoration, as they give an example of analog forestry in a local context; Certification: we work with the production standard for Forest Garden Products, which allows sustainable forest products to reach a value=added market. We also work with local networks devoted to participatory guarantee systems; Knowledge management: the experiences of our network partners is a valuable resource, and one of the roles IAFN plays is to share these experiences, lessons learned, and research from around the world.

IAPB – “The International Association for Plant Biotechnology is the largest international professional organisation representing the interests of the world-wide plant biotechnology community… in 1970 the International Association of Plant Tissue Culture (IAPTC) was formally established during the first IAPTC Congress in Strasbourg, France, where the IAPTC constitution was formally approved. The major objective of the IAPTC was “to promote the interest of plant tissue culture workers”. This aim was achieved primarily by: 1. Convening International Congresses of Plant Tissue Culture; 2 The publication of a Newsletter. 3 Establishing international country memberships. One of the key features of the IAPTC was, and still is, their wide international activity, each of the countries being represented by a National Correspondent. The governing body of the association is the Council, consisting of National Correspondents.”

IAPPS – International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences: “Our mission is to promote an integrated and sustainable approach to plant protection worldwide, from research through to practical application.”

IAPSC/CPI – Interafrican Phytosanitary Council/Conseil phytosanitaire interafricain (see also EPPO)

IAPT – “The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names. The IAPT was founded on July 18, 1950 at the Seventh International Botanical Congress in Stockholm, Sweden.” (from Wikipedia, 2018)

IAPTC – (Archaic) see IAPB

IATP – “Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) (United States/International) – IATP is a research and advocacy organization working to promote fair and sustainable food, farm, and trade systems around the world.”

IAS – The International Aroid Society is a nonprofit organization which supports aroid education, research and horticulture through publications, awards, events, and the website aroid.org.

IBDA – The International Biodynamic Association: “IBDA is the international association of the biodynamic movement working in close cooperation with the Demeter trademark licensing and certifying associations which are members of Demeter International (DI).”

IBDC – “The International Biodynamic Council (IBDC) was founded in 2012. It consists of the board members of Demeter-International, IBDA, the heads of the Section and Aender Schanck from Luxembourg as a representative for trade and processing.”

IBS – International Bulb Society

ICAR – “The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare , Government of India. Formerly known as Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, it was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture. The ICAR has its headquarters at New Delhi. ¶The Council is the apex body for co-ordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country. With 101 ICAR institutes and 71 agricultural universities spread across the country this is one of the largest national agricultural systems in the world. ¶The ICAR has played a pioneering role in ushering Green Revolution and subsequent developments in agriculture in India through its research and technology development that has enabled the country to increase the production of food grains by 5 times, horticultural crops by 9.5 times, fish by 12.5 times , milk 7.8 times and eggs 39 times since 1951 to 2014, thus making a visible impact on the national food and nutritional security. It has played a major role in promoting excellence in higher education in agriculture. It is engaged in cutting edge areas of science and technology development and its scientists are internationally acknowledged in their fields.” (2018)

ICBG – “Our International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups Program for Panama (“ICBG”) has the goal of linking drug discovery from rainforest plants with biodiversity conservation. Our plant collections are driven by “ecological insight”. That is, we use the results of decades of ecological research to guide us to plants that are most likely to have medicinal compounds.” See also STRI

ICBG places a large emphasis on collaboration, training and technology-transfer to Panamanian scientific institutions.

ICBN – International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

ICCA – The International Correspondence of Corkscrew Addicts

ICEERS – “The International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service (ICEERS) is a philanthropic, tax-exempt non-profit organization (charity) dedicated to 1) the integration of ayahuasca, iboga and other traditional plants as therapeutic tools in modern society, and 2) the preservation of the indigenous cultures that have been using these plant species since antiquity on their habitat and botanical resources.”

ICPN – “The Index to California Plant Names (ICPN) includes names from a variety of sources (e.g., specimens, checklists, floras) that have been applied, correctly or incorrectly, to California plants. Approximately 9,400 of 15,000 names presently included in ICPN appeared in The Jepson Manual as accepted names, names of minor variants, or synonyms; most of the remainder have come into use, or come back into use, correctly or incorrectly, since The Jepson Manual. The primary intention is to account for names people are likely to encounter, from whatever source, and to summarize the status of such names with respect to the first printing of The Jepson Manual (TJM), and to the flora of California as it is understood presently by authors contributing to the Second Edition of The Jepson Manual (to the extent that we are incorporating any changes these authors make relative to TJM as we become aware of them).

ICRAF – International Council for Research in Agroforestry: “The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) is a centre of scientific excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, for farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability. Our Vision: An equitable world where all people have viable livelihoods supported by healthy and productive landscapes. Our Mission: To harness the multiple benefits trees provide for agriculture, livelihoods, resilience and the future of our planet, from farmers’ fields through to continental scales. ICRAF’s headquarters are based in Nairobi, Kenya, and we operate six regional programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America.”

ICSS – “The International Crop Science Society (ICSS) fosters communication among crop scientists. It nurtures the International Crop Science Congress held every four years. These Congresses stimulate thinking among scientists as to how advances in crop science, in all their aspects, can assist in meeting the critical diverse global challenges that lie ahead.” (GPC website)

ICTB – “The International Center for Tropical Botany develops research, education, and outreach programs related to tropical botany, integrating the research programs of a faculty with global presence in tropical regions. By building an international network of collaborating researchers and institutions, the Center facilitates international collaborations that advances critical interdisciplinary research on pressing global issues. Headquartered at the Kampong, the historical estate of plant explorer Dr. David Fairchild and one of the National Tropical Botanical Garden’s five sites, the Center is located in Coconut Grove, Florida.”

ICTV – International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: “Taxonomy lies at the uneasy interface between biology and logic. The processing of information follows somewhat different rules in these two systems and the role of taxonomy is to reconcile them as tidily as possible. To this end, the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) charged the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. The goal of this undertaking is to categorize the multitude of known viruses into a single classification scheme that reflects their evolutionary relationships, i.e. their individual phylogenies”

IERC – “Welcome to Integral Ecology Research Center: IERC is a non- profit organization dedicated to the research and conservation of wildlife and their ecosystems. Founded in 2004, IERC has conducted and continues research on several sensitive wildlife species, with the ultimate goal of providing knowledge and understanding towards the conservation of these species and their habitats. Our projects cover many different habitats, from alpine settings to old-growth coastal forests to deserts and tropical jungles. Our research entails a wide range of species from big cats, to elusive forest carnivores, to sensitive stream amphibians, to endangered invertebrates, and to o wildlife and zoonotic diseases Through our programs, we hope to provide the most current and scientifically accurate ecological information that will help wildlife managers, educators, researchers, and politicians implement well-informed conservation measures for wildlife species and promote biological diversity world-wide.”

IFA – “The Iowa Florists’ Association (IFA) is an association representing the needs and interests of the floriculture industry in Iowa. The IFA was formed to promote the sale and use of floral products through marketing, research and education, and to protect the industry through involvement in the legislative process.’

IFAJ – “An organization that later became known as the International Federation of Agricultural Journalists (IFAJ) was first formed in 1956. Interest in organizing an international organization of agricultural journalists can be traced back to 1933 when an International Federation of the Agricultural Press was founded at Ghent in Belgium; two years later, during the Brussels International Fair, a congress was organized and attended by journalists from 18 countries. The outbreak of WWII set an end to the first federation’s activities.”

IFT – Institute of Food Technologists

IFTA – “In 1958, The International Fruit Tree Association began its existence as the Dwarf Fruit Tree Association. A small meeting of fruit growers in Hartford, Michigan met to discuss the increasing interest in planting dwarf trees in commercial orchards. ¶From these humble beginnings, IFTA has grown into an international organization noted for its commitment to furthering the fruit tree industry. For more information about the early history of IFTA, download the book A Historical Perspective, 1958-1991, written by Robert F. Carlson. Robert was a former Executive Secretary of IDFTA (IFTA) and the namesake of the Carlson Lecturer at the IFTA Annual Conference.”

IGA – “International Grains Agreement — Replaced the International Wheat Agreement in 1995. The IGA comprises a Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and a Food Aid Convention (FAC). The IGA is administered by the International Grains Council (IGC), an intergovernmental forum for cooperation on wheat and coarse grain matters. The Grains Trade Convention provides for information- sharing, analysis and consultations on grain market and policy developments. Under the Food Aid Convention, donor countries pledge to provide annually specified amounts of food aid to developing countries in the form of grain suitable for human consumption, or cash to buy suitable grains in recipient countries. The International Grains Agreement does not contain any mechanisms for stabilizing supplies, prices, or trade.” (Wolmach, 2005)

IGC — “International Grains Council — An intergovernmental forum responsible for administering the International Grains Agreement (IGA). The United States is a member of the IGC.” (Womach, 2005)

IJIS – International Journal of Integrated Science (see IPEC)

IJNP – Indian Journal of Natural Products (see SP) IJO — International Jute Organization.

INPS – “The Iowa Native Plant Society is a forum for plant enthusiasts, gardeners, and professional botanists to exchange ideas and information, and to work together to: encourage conservation and ethical use of Iowa’s plants; promote education about Iowa’s plants, their habitats and cultural habits, and the preservation of these plants and their environment; [and] appreciate and enjoy Iowa’s native flora. ¶INPS organizes field trips and promotes other native plant events on our calendar. We post pictures from some of our field trips. You can learn more about what’s happening in INPS by reading the latest newsletter. Check out our Books page for books recently authored by INPS members. Keep informed about native-plant-related topics by joining our email discussion group.”

INRA – L’Institut national de la recherche agronomique: “The French National Institute for Agricultural Research is Europe’s top agricultural research institute and the world’s number two centre for the agricultural sciences. Its scientists are working towards solutions for society’s major challenges.”

INRO — International Natural Rubber Organization.

INTECOL – “The International Association for Ecology (INTECOL) supports collaboration amongst ecologists and ecological societies across the world. Ecologists can share their knowledge and work together to find creative solutions to world’s ecological issues.“

INPAWS – “Welcome to INPAWS, the Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society.

IOPI – “The International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI) manages a series of cooperative international projects that aim to create and link databases of plant taxonomic information. “

IOPI is a Commission of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and a member of Species 2000. Whatever your interest— protecting natural places, adding native plants to your garden, photographing wildflowers, or lending expertise to our community of native plant enthusiasts—there’s a place for you in INPAWS. ¶Together we’re working to create healthy ecosystems, teach the next generation to love the land, and save the wild beauty of Indiana.”

IP – “Identity Preservation — A general term used to describe the technical and managerial techniques used to track and document the paths that agricultural products move in the production process. A fully integrated IP system might track and document a commodity’s seed characteristics, initial planting, growing conditions, harvesting, shipping, storage, processing, packaging, and ultimate sale to the consumer. Separating organic products from conventionally raised ones is a one type of IP system. IP systems are a central component of value-chains.” As Compared to: “Identity preserved (IP) — This is the designation given to bulk commodities marketed in a manner that isolates and preserves the identity of a shipment, presumably because of unique characteristics that have value otherwise lost through commingling during normal storage, handling and shipping procedures. The concept of IP has been accorded greater importance with the introduction of genetically modified (GM) organisms into agriculture. Although the U.S. scientific community maintains that GM crops are safe, critics want them segregated from non-GM commodities out of concerns about their potential environmental and food safety implications.” (Womach, 2016)

IPA – Invasive Plant Atlas: “The Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States is a collaborative project between the National Park Service and the University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. The Atlas provides information about non-native plant species that invade natural areas, excluding agricultural and other developed lands. Non-native invasive plants compete with native plant species for light, nutrients, water, and soil. They degrade natural areas by displacing native plant communities, reducing light penetration, increasing ground level humidity, changing soil ph and chemistry, and altering hydrologic and fire regimes. The changes invasives bring can affect things like the amount and quality of food and nesting sites available for wildlife, the extent and survival of native plant populations, the quality and functions of wetlands and waterways, and the appearance and enjoyment of natural landscapes.”

IPC – refers to numerous Invasive Plant Councils throughout the USA.

IPC – (commercial): “Invasive Plant Control, Inc is one of only a few companies in the United States whose sole purpose is the management of Invasive Species nationwide. Invasive plant management requires remarkably different methodologies than traditional vegetation management. Focusing specifically on invasive plants has allowed IPC to become one of the nation’s leading private entities for controlling invasive plants. Since its beginning as a national company in 1997 IPC has controlled invasive species from the deep south’s Everglades National Park to the northeast’s Shenandoah National Park. The company is owned and operated by Lee Patrick and Steve Manning.

IPC strives to provide the highest quality service and maintain long- term relationships with all of its clients. We are proud of all the work we have completed in the past and recommend you contact one or two of the references listed in this site or call us to talk about other projects we have completed that may be similar to yours.”

IPEC – International PhytoEssence Consortium is comprised of three independent entities serving main objectives consist of (a) fostering advances in science and technology related to phytocosmetics, personal care products, and natural ingredients that are solely plant based, (b) sponsoring responsible practices in research, development and production of plant based goods, and (c) ensuring global understanding of sustainable, zero harm to environment and adhering to the highest ethical standard in all practices. Three organizations are International Society for Phytocosmetic Science (ISPS), International Journal of Integrated Science (IJIS) and a subsidiary responsible for production of International Phytocosmetics and Phytotherapy Congresses (IPPC).

IPGSA – International Plant Growth Substances Association: “The object of the Association is to promote the development of the study of plant growth substances at the international level. The IPGSA organizes International Conferences on plant growth substances. It also organizes sections devoted to plant growth substances and related disciplines at International Congresses. IPGSA facilitates publication of matters relating to the study of plant growth substances.”

IPK – Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Germany, see also GBIS/I, the Gene Bank Information System of IPK (http://gbis.ipk-gatersleben.de).

IPNI – “The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) is a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes. Its goal is to eliminate the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names. The data are freely available and are gradually being standardized and checked. IPNI is a dynamic resource, depending on direct contributions by all members of the botanical community. IPNI is the product of a collaboration between The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, The Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium.”

IPPC – “The Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) was established in 1992 by FAO in recognition of the increasing roles of the IPPC. The Secretariat is hosted by FAO and its Headquarters is in Rome, Italy. The staff of the IPPC Secretariat currently consists of a Secretary, a Coordinator and several professional officers and administrative staff. The Secretariat is also complemented by contracting parties providing staff resources through various contributions.

IPPC – International Phytocosmetics and Phytotherapy Congresses (see IPEC)

IPPS – “The International Plant Propagators’ Society is an international association of plant production professionals. The Society provides a forum for sharing plant production knowledge with the aim to improve the professionalism, knowledge and skills of its members. IPPS has since its inception in 1951 developed into the leading global plant production knowledge network. It has a worldwide membership of over 1600 members who have the opportunity to meet regularly on a regional and international level by attending educational conferences, tours, field days and workshops. The Society offers various scholarships, research grants and exchange programs.“

IPS – The International Palm Society: “Whether your interest is in botanical research or growing palms in your home and garden, membership in The International Palm Society will provide you with a continuous source of information about this vast plant family of around 2,500 tropical and subtropical species.”

ISA – International Society of Arboriculture, 2101 West Park Court, Champaign, IL 61821, United States. Also see: Trees Are Good

ISAAA – International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications presents an easy to use database of Biotech/GM crop approvals for various biotechnology stakeholders. It features the Biotech/GM crop events and traits that have been approved for commercialization and planting and/or for import for food and feed use with a short description of the crop and the trait. We feed the world with Knowledge.”

ISC – “The Invasive Species Compendium (ISC) is an encyclopedic resource that brings together a wide range of different types of science-based information to support decision-making in invasive species management worldwide.

The US Department of Agriculture is a lead partner with CABI in the development of this Compendium which has been resourced by a diverse international Consortium of government departments, non-governmental organizations and private companies.

ISE – “International Society for Ethnopharmacology: The ISE promotes a critical discussion between everyone interested in local and traditional knowledge on medicinal, food and toxic plants and their past, present and future.”

ISEB – “International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB) is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation and is a Scientific Member of International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), Paris. The Main goals of ISEB are: To promote and coordinate research on plants in relation to environmental pollution; To encourage better interaction among researchers, teachers, and social activists; and To create awareness, especially among governmental policy makers and industry leaders.”

ISFA – “The Illinois State Florists’ Association is made up of hundreds of florists within Illinois and surrounding states. Our mission is to educate our members through bootcamps, ICPF certification program, Annual Floral Design Show, and much more. By educating our members through these methods we will help you create a stronger floral industry.”

ISO – “International Sugar Organization — The body established by the International Sugar Agreement, 1992 whose objectives are: “(a) To ensure enhanced international cooperation in connection with world sugar matters and related issues; (b) To provide a forum for intergovernmental consultations on sugar and on ways to improve the world sugar economy; (c) To facilitate trade by collecting and providing information on the world sugar market and other sweeteners; (d) To encourage increased demand for sugar, particularly for non-traditional uses.” [www.sugaronline.com/iso].” (Womach, 2005)

ISP – “The advent of house by the name of Indian Society of Pharmacognosy is a clear omen of the foresightedness of the mastermind’s beings honoring the desk of herbs and their products since times immemorial. The society took birth 38 years back with its headquarters at Punjab University, Chandigarh with the aim of exploring the benefits of the flora and fauna for the human welfare. The society worked leaving no stone unturned, and later found that print media is the prominent source to touch the masses. With this intention, society started to publish a quarterly journal by the name of “Indian Journal of Natural Products (IJNP)” SPFV – “The Portuguese Society of Plant Physiology (Portuguese: Sociedade Portuguesa de Fisiologia Vegetal; SPFV) was founded in 1977 as an affiliate of the Portuguese Biochemical Society (Sociedade Portuguesa de Bioquímica; SPB). It congregates scientists and graduate students within the area of plant biology, in particular, plant physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology.” (GPC website) (ISP is somewhat Archaic, but remains part of the society logo)

ISPP – Indian Society of Plant Physiologists: “The Society aims: To provide a platform for exchange of ideas between researchers working in the field of Plant Physiology and allied sciences; To publish Indian Journal of Plant Physiology and proceedings of plant physiology research conferences/ seminars; To organize international/ national conference/ symposia/ zonal seminars and annual meetings of the researchers associated with Plant Physiology and allied sciences in agriculture;;To recognize the scientists and young researchers by awarding and providing fellowships of the society for their significant research contributions.”

ISPS – Israeli Society of Plant Sciences: “The aims of the Society are to promote the interest in and encourage research on various Plant Science-related fields, and to encourage collaborations between members of the society and members of similar societies worldwide. The society strives to promote botanical educational programs for schools and for the general public, and to develop ties with the biotechnology industry.”

ISPS – International Society for Phytocosmetic Science (see IPEC)

IT PGRFA – “The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT PGRFA),[1] popularly known as the International Seed Treaty, is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use. It also recognises Farmers’ Rights, subject to national laws to: a) the protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture; b) the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilisation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture; and c) the right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. The Treaty establishes the Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-sharing to facilitate plant germplasm exchanges and benefit sharing through Standard Material Transfer Agreement (SMTA).” (Wikipedia 2018)

ITTO – “International Tropical Timber Organization is an intergovernmental organization promoting the conservation and sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. Its members represent about 80% of the world’s tropical forests and 90% of the global tropical timber trade. ¶The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) was established under the auspices of the United Nations in 1986 amidst increasing worldwide concern for the fate of tropical forests. While almost everyone was alarmed at the rate of deforestation occurring in many tropical countries, there was also considerable agreement that the tropical timber trade was one of the keys to economic development in those same countries. The reconciliation of these two seemingly disparate phenomena is ITTO’s story.”

IWGS – “Welcome to the International Waterlily and Water Gardening Society (IWGS) … your primary resource for water gardening and all the beautiful waterlilies and aquatic plants associated with this relaxing and rewarding hobby.”

IUBS – “The International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation, established in 1919. IUBS is the only international body that covers all disciplines of biological and life sciences. As an umbrella organisation for international scientific associations, IUBS is developing approaches [as to] how scientific disciplines are able to interact successfully. It currently unites more than 110 institutional members, comprising of ordinary as well as scientific members concerned with a particular biological discipline as well as several associate members aspiring to become an ordinary member.”

IUCN – “The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non- governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together. Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its 1,300 Member organisations and the input of some 10,000 experts. IUCN is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it. Our experts are organised into six commissions dedicated to species survival, environmental law, protected areas, social and economic policy, ecosystem management, and education and communication.”

IUFRO – International Union of Forest Research Organizations: “IUFRO is a non-profit, non-governmental international network of forest scientists, which promotes global cooperation in forest-related research and enhances the understanding of the ecological, economic and social aspects of forests and trees. IUFRO is “the” global network for forest science cooperation. It unites more than 15,000 scientists in almost 700 Member Organizations in over 110 countries, and is a member of ICSU. Scientists cooperate in IUFRO on a voluntary basis.”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

icon – refer to the image or illustration

IK – Indigenous Knowledge

ined. – ineditus, known in literature but not validly published as a name

Infl., infls. – standard abbreviation for inflorescence, inflorescences.

Invols., invols. – abbreviation for involcre, involucres.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • ICB – Illecebraceae – dicot
  • ICC – Icacinaceae – dicot
  • IDI* – Idiospermaceae – dicot
  • ILC – Illiciaceae – dicot
  • ILI – Ilicaceae – dicot
  • IRI – Iridaceae – monocot
  • IRV – Irvingiaceae – dicot
  • ISO – Isoetaceae – pteridophyte
  • ITE – Iteaceae – dicot
  • IXI** – Ixioliriaceae – monocot
  • IXO – Ixonanthaceae – dicot
  • IXR** – Ixerbaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

I – element – Iodine

I – 1-letter abbreviation for the amino acid Isoleucine IAA

Ile – abbreviation for the amino acid Isoleucine

ISH – in situ hybridization (see also GISH, FISH) -techniques pioneered by

IPCC – acronym – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


  • I – Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Romania
  • IAN – Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém, Brasil
  • IB – Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
  • IB; PAN – Władysław Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  • IBE – Institute for Botanical Exploration Herbarium, Mississippi State, Mississippi
  • IBF – Tyrolean State Museum, Innsbruc, ,Austria
  • IBK – Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China
  • IBSC – South China Botanical Garden, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
  • IBUG – Universidad de Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
  • ICEL – Icelandic Institute of Natural History, ReykjavÌk, Iceland
  • ICN – Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul” Brasil
  • IDS – Ray J. Davis Herbarium, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho
  • IFAN – Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, Dakar, Senegal
  • IFGP – Pacific Southwest Research Station Herbarium, USDA Forest Service, Placerville, California
  • IFP – Institute of Applied Ecology, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China
  • IJ – Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica
  • ILH – Iowa Lakeside Laboratory Herbarium, Milford, Iowa
  • ILLS – Illinois Natural History Survey Herbarium, Champaign, Illinois
  • IMI – CABI Bioscience UK Centre, Surrey, England, UKINB – Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica
  • IND – Deam Herbarium, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
  • INPA – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil
  • IRAN – Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
  • IRKU – Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia
  • IRP – Isle Royale National Park Herbarium, Houghton, Michigan
  • ISC – Ada Hayden Herbarium, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
  • ISM – Illinois State Museum Herbarium, Springfield, Illinois
  • ISU – Illinois State University Herbarium, Normal, Illinois
  • ITIC – Universidad de El Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador
  • IUP – Arthur G. Shields Herbarium, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

JC – Judges’ Commendation, American Orchid Society. “Given for distinctive characteristics that the judges unanimously feel should be recognized but cannot be scored in the customary ways.”

JIC – “The John Innes Centre is an independent, international centre of excellence in plant science, research, genetics and microbiology. The research we do makes use of a wide range of disciplines in biological and chemical sciences, including microbiology, cell biology, biochemistry, chemistry, genetics, molecular biology, computational and mathematical biology. We receive funding from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) for four Institute Strategic Programs (ISPs) that directly address BBSRC strategic objectives in food security, human health and industrial biotechnology: Genes in the Environment, Plant Health (in partnership with The Sainsbury Laboratory), Molecules from Nature, & Designing Future Wheat (a cross-institute strategic programme).”

JSPP – “The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists (JSPP) was established in 1959 and enables Japanese researchers working on plant physiology and related subjects in the fields of basic science, agriculture, and pharmacology to communicate with on another.” (GPC website)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • JAP** – Japonoliriaceae – monocot
  • JCG – Juncaginaceae – monocot
  • JNV** – Joinvilleaceae – monocot
  • JUG – Juglandaceae – dicot
  • JUL – Julianaceae – dicot
  • JUN – Juncaceae – monocot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

JA – hormone – Jasminic Acid


  • J – University of the Witwatersrand, Charles E. Moss Herbarium, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • JACA – Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, C.S.I.C.” Jaca Spain
  • JBAG – JardÌn Botánico Atlántico, Ayuntamiento de Gijón, Gijón, Asturias, Spain
  • JBSD – JardÌn Botánico Nacional Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
  • JE – University of Jena, Jena, Germany
  • JEF – Indiana University Southeast Herbarium, New Albany, Indiana
  • JMUH – James Madison University Herbarium, Harrisonburg, Virginia
  • JNUB – Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea
  • JSU – Jacksonville State University Herbarium, Jacksonville, Alabama
  • JVR – Herbario Juvenal Rodríguez, National University of Costa Rica” Heredia Costa Rica
  • JYV – University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, Programs, and Publications…

KNPS – “The mission of the Kansas Native Plant Society is to encourage awareness and appreciation of the native plants of Kansas in their habitats and in our landscapes by promoting education, stewardship, and scientific knowledge. ¶The Kansas Native Plant Society (KNPS) is a non-profit 501(c)3 organization. It was organized in 1978 as the Kansas Wildflower Society (KWS) to make people more aware of the beauty and value of our state’s native wildflowers. In 2004, the “Wildflower” was replaced with “Native Plant” in our name to more accurately reflect the spectrum of plants we study and promote and to put more focus on our indigenous flora.”

KNPS – The Kentucky Native Plant Society was founded in 1986 for everyone interested in the native plants and wildflowers of Kentucky. Plants are essential to both the well-being of our Commonwealth’s natural ecosystems and our enjoyment of its unique environment. With members in Kentucky and neighboring states, the Kentucky Native Plant Society is a leader in promoting education about, appreciation for, and conservation of our native flora.

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

K – in floral formulae, calyx (collective for sepals)

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

KBL – Koeberliniaceae – dicot KGD – Kingdoniaceae – dicot

KLF – Kaulfussiaceae – pteridophyte KLP** – Kaliphoraceae – dicot

KRK – Kirkiaceae – dicot KRM – Krameriaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

K – element – Potassium

K – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Lysine

KNOTTED – gene

KNOX – gene



  • K – Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Kew, England, UK
  • KANA – Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
  • KATH – National Herbarium and Plant Laboratories, Nepal
  • KBR – Bogor Botanical Garden, Indonesia, Bogor, West Java
  • KBSMS – Kellogg Biological Station Herbarium, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, Michigan
  • KE – Tom S. and Miwako K. Cooperrider Herbarium, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio
  • KEN – Longwood Gardens Herbarium, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania
  • KEP – Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia
  • KESC – Keene State College Herbarium, Keene, New Hampshire
  • KFTA – S. M. Kirov Forestry Academy, I. P. Borodin Herbarium, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • KHD – Kathryn Kalmbach Herbarium, Denver Botanic Gardens, Denver, Colorado
  • KIEL -University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
  • KL – Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Klagenfurt, Austria
  • KNFY – Klamath National Forest Herbarium, Yreka, California
  • KNK – Northern Kentucky University Herbarium, Highland Heights, Kentucky
  • KNOX – Knox College Herbarium, Galesburg, Illinois
  • KR – Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • KSC – Kansas State University Herbarium, Manhattan, Kansas
  • KSP – Theodore M. Sperry Herbarium, Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas
  • KSTC – Emporia State University Herbarium, Emporia, Kansas
  • KUN – Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China
  • KUO – Kuopio Natural History Museum, Kuopio, Finland
  • KY – University of Kentucky Herbarium, Lexington, Kentucky
  • KYO – Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, Programs, & Publications…

LAMP – The Latin America Corn Project began with support from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, and was one of the earliest international cooperative efforts dedicated to evaluation of a major crop. The program involved significant sharing and field testing of regional landraces. Seed from LAMP work are now available through CIMMYT. (Smith, Betrán, & Runge, 2005)

LNPS- “The Louisiana Native Plant Society Purposes Are: To preserve and study native plants and their habitats; To educate people on the value of native plants and the need to preserve and protect rare and endangered species; To promote the propagation and use of native plants in the landscape; [and] To educate people on the relationship between our native flora and wildlife.”

LSEB – “Established in 1987, State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany (LSEB) was formerly a key laboratory of CAS. In 2005, LSEB became a state key laboratory by integrating the Department of Plant Taxonomy, the Herbarium, the Department of Paleobotany, and the Chinese Paleobotany Museum. LSEB now has 17 research groups and 67 researchers, in which 2 are Academicians of CAS, 22 are professors, and 5 won the “National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars”. The CAS Academician Xiaoya Chen is the President of the LSEB’s academic committee, and Prof. Xiaoquan Wang is its director.

LSEB aims to study the pattern, formation and variation of plant species diversity, in order to reconstruct plant phylogeny and unravelthe processes and mechanisms underlying evolution. The laboratory also studies the character variation and genetic background of resource plants, particularly the evolutionary and developmental patterns of key characters, as to provide a theoretical basis for the genetic improvement of crops and economic plants for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.”

LTWA – “What does LTWA stand for? LTWA stands for “List of Title Word Abbreviations.” What is the LTWA? It is a list that contains all the standardised abbreviations used for words in scientific citations. It is based on ISO4, an international standard which defines a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial titles, i.e., titles of publications such as scientific journals. The ISSN International Centre, which the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has appointed as the registration authority for ISO4, maintains the “List of Title Word Abbreviations”, which are standard abbreviations for words commonly found in serial titles. One major use of ISO4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals in citations. For instance, when citing a paper from the European Physical Journal, the ISO 4 standard prescribes the abbreviation “Eur. Phys. J.” LTWA includes more than 56,000 words and their abbreviations in 65 languages. These abbreviated words serve as the basis for constituting “abbreviated key titles” published in the ISSN Register. The List of title word abbreviations contains: the title words of periodicals identified by the ISSN Network and the corresponding abbreviations.

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

Lf., lvs. – Leaf, leaves

Lft., lfts. – Leaflet, leaflets.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • LAB – Labiatae – dicot
  • LAM – Lamiaceae – dicot
  • LAN** – Lanariaceae – monocot
  • LAR – Lardizabalaceae – dicot
  • LAU – Lauraceae – dicot
  • LAX** – Laxmanniaceae – monocot
  • LCS – Lacistemataceae – dicot
  • LCT – Lactoridaceae – dicot
  • LCY – Lecythidaceae – dicot
  • LDC – Ledocarpaceae – dicot
  • LEE – Leeaceae – dicot
  • LEG – Leguminosae – dicot
  • LEO – Leonticaceae – dicot
  • LIL – Liliaceae – monocot
  • LIM – Limnanthaceae – dicot
  • LIN – Linaceae – dicot
  • LLA – Lilaeaceae – monocot
  • LMC – Limnocharitaceae – monocot
  • LMN – Lemnaceae – monocot
  • LMO – Limoniaceae – dicot
  • LND – Lindsaeaceae – pteridophyte
  • LNN – Lennoaceae – dicot
  • LNN** – Linnaeaceae – dicot
  • LNT – Lentibulariaceae – dicot
  • LOA – Loasaceae – dicot
  • LOB – Lobeliaceae – dicot
  • LOD* – Lomandraceae – monocot
  • LOG – Loganiaceae – dicot
  • LOM – Lomariopsidaceae – pteridophyte
  • LOR – Loranthaceae – dicot
  • LOW – Lowiaceae – monocot
  • LOX – Loxogrammaceae – pteridophyte
  • LPB – Lepidobotryaceae – dicot
  • LPH – Lophosoriaceae – pteridophyte
  • LPI – Lophiraceae – dicot
  • LPR – Lepuropetalaceae – dicot
  • LPX – Lophopyxidaceae – dicot
  • LSS – Lissocarpaceae – dicot
  • LTN – Leitneriaceae – dicot
  • LUZ** – Luzuriagaceae – monocot
  • LXS – Loxsomaceae – pteridophyte
  • LXT – Loxsomataceae – pteridophyte
  • LYC – Lycopodiaceae – pteridophyte
  • LYG – Lygodiaceae – pteridophyte
  • LYT – Lythraceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

L – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Leucine

LATERNE – gene

LAX – gene

LBD – gene LBD – protein

LEAFY/LEAFY – a gene and protein “coordinate the activity of a whole group of genes whose… products are important for .. making the flower.” (Singer, 2018)


Leu – abbreviation for the amino acid Leusine


LINES – Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements


LURE – proteins, cysteine-rich proteins, secreted from synergids, luring the pollen tube in that direction.

Lys – abbreviation for the amino acid Lysine


  • L, U, WAG – Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland), Leiden, Netherlands
  • LAE – Papua New Guinea Forest Research Institute, National Herbarium, Papua, New Guinea;
  • LAGO – Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Herbarium, La Grande, Oregon
  • LAGU – Asociación JardÌn Botánico La Laguna, Urbanización Plan de La Laguna, La Libertad, El Salvador
  • LAJC – Otero Junior College Herbarium, La Junta, Colorado
  • LAM – Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Herbarium, Los Angeles California (On Deposit at Rancho Santa Ana, RSA).
  • LAMU – Lamar University Herbarium, Beaumont, Texas
  • LAPC – Pierce College Herbarium, Woodland Hills, California
  • LAT – Saint Vincent College Herbarium, Latrobe, Pennsylvania
  • LATV – University of Latvia, Salaspils, Salaspils, Latvia
  • LAU – Musée et Jardins Botaniques Cantonaux, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • LCDI – Luther College Herbarium, Decorah, Iowa
  • LCEU – Rowe-Love Herbarium Lane Community College, Eugene, Oregon
  • LCU – Catholic University of America Herbarium, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
  • LD – Botanical Museum, Lund, Sweden
  • LE – Komarov Botanical Institute (Ботанический институт имени В.Л. Комарова), St. Petersburg, Russia
  • LEA – University of Lethbridge Herbarium, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
  • LEB Universidad de León, León, Spain
  • LECB – Saint Petersburg University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет), Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • LFCC – Lord Fairfax Community College Herbarium, Middletown, Virginia
  • LG – Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium
  • LGO – Columbia University Herbarium, Columbia University, Palisades, New York”
  • LI – Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums, Linz, Austria
  • LIL – Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina
  • LISC – Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisboa, Portugal
  • LISE – Estação Agronómica Nacional, Oeiras, Portugal
  • LISU – Museu Nacional de História Natural, Lisboa, Portugal
  • LIV – World Museum Liverpool, Liverpool, England, UK
  • LJM – Prirodoslovni Muzej Slovenije, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • LJU – University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • LKHD – Claude Garton Herbarium, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
  • LLC – Our Lady of the Lake University Herbarium, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, Texas
  • LLO – Lloyd Library and Museum Herbarium, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • LMU – Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
  • LNCN – Lincoln Memorial University Herbarium, Harrogate, Tennessee
  • LOB – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Long Beach, California
  • LOC – Occidental College Herbarium, Los Angeles, California
  • LOMA – La Sierra University Herbarium, Riverside, California
  • LP – Museo de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • LPB – Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia
  • LSC – Lyndon State College Herbarium, Lyndonville, Vermont
  • LSR – Leicestershire Museums, Leicester, England,
  • LUKLSU – Louisiana State University Herbarium, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
  • LSUM – Bernard Lowy Mycological Herbarium, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
  • LSUS – D. T. MacRoberts Herbarium, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, Louisiana
  • LTR – University of Leicester, Leicester, England,
  • LUKLTU – Louisiana Tech University Herbarium, Ruston, Louisiana
  • LUG – Museo cantonale di storia natural, Lugano, Switzerland
  • LUX – Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
  • LVNP – Lassen Volcanic National Park Herbarium, Mineral, California
  • LY – Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France
  • LYJB – Jardin Botanique de la Ville de Lyon, Lyon, France
  • LYN – Ramsey-Freer Herbarium, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, Virginia
  • LZ – University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

MAP – “Market Access Program (MAP) — MAP, previously called the Market Promotion Program, is administered by the Foreign Agricultural Service and uses funds from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). It helps producers, exporters, private companies, and other trade organizations finance promotional activities for U.S. agricultural products. MAP is designed to encourage development, maintenance, and expansion of commercial agricultural export markets. Activities financed include consumer promotions, market research, technical assistance, and trade servicing. The Export Incentive Program, which is part of MAP, helps U.S. commercial entities conduct brand promotion activities including advertising, trade shows, in-store demonstrations, and trade seminars.” (Womach, 2005)

MAP – Museum Assessment Program

MBG – Missouri Botanical Garden (see also Herbaria: MO)

MFA – “The Michigan Floral Association (MFA), founded in 1920, is a full-service trade association representing florists, growers, suppliers, wholesalers, educators and students. MFA provides education and professional partnerships, sponsors the Certified Florist (CF) program, creates and hosts The Great Lakes Floral Expo and trade show, conducts educational seminars at the Professional Education Center, partners with local wholesale houses around MI to produce design seminars and product reviews, publishes the award winning Professional Florist magazine and interacts with state/federal government agencies. Please have fun exploring our site and discover the joy of flowers.”

MNNPS – “The Minnesota Native Plant Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the conservation and appreciation of Minnesota’s native plants and plant communities through education and public awareness.”

MNPS – “The Maryland Native Plant Society’s mission is to promote awareness, appreciation, and conservation of Maryland’s native plants and their habitats. We pursue our mission through education, research, advocacy, and service activities.”

MNPS – “THE GOALS of the Montana Native Plant Society are to preserve, conserve, and study the native plants and plant communities of Montana, and to educate the public about the values of our native flora. ¶Today we have over 600 members. Membership is open to individuals, families, and organizations within and outside Montana. Members may affiliate themselves with local chapters or join as Eastern or Western At-Large members (see Chapters and Areas in menu above).

MNPS – “The Mississippi Native Plant Society was formed in 1980 to provide a forum for learning about our state’s ecosystems and the plants that exist within them. Our goal is to provide educational opportunities and to encourage the conservation and utilization of native plants. ¶We are plant professionals including biologists, horticulturists and conservationists. We are also the typical home gardener or anyone interested in learning more about our native plants. ¶We all share a passion for nature and the plants native to our state. We also enjoy meeting and networking with other like-minded individuals.”

MONPS – “The Missouri Native Plant Society (MONPS) was founded in 1979 as a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization devoted to the enjoyment, preservation, conservation, restoration, and study of the flora native to Missouri. MONPS is active both at the state level with a Board of Directors that meets four times per year, and regionally with chapter affiliates.”

MPCI – “Multi-Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI) — The oldest and most common form of federal crop insurance. MPCI protects against crop yield losses by allowing participating producers to insure a certain percentage of historical crop production. A single policy protects crops against all natural perils including adverse weather, fire, insects, disease, wildlife, earthquake, volcanic eruption and failure of irrigation water due to unavoidable causes. It is delivered by private companies and reinsured by the federal government.” (Womach 2005)

MPWG – “The Medicinal Plant Working Group (MPWG) works to forge partnerships with industry, government, academia, tribes and environmental organizations to facilitate sustainable use and conservation of medicinal plants.” See BGCI

MSBP – Millennium Seed Bank Partnership. from the Kew website: “The seed collections in the Millennium Seed Bank constitute the largest and most diverse wild plant species genetic resource in the world. The great majority of this collection has been collected by the associated global network, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership (MSBP), which is active in over 80 countries and is the largest ex situ plant conservation programme in the world.”

MSI – “The Magnolia Society International is a non-profit organization devoted to the appreciation and study of magnolias. Founded in 1963, the Society activities include exchanging magnolia plant material, evaluating and promoting magnolia cultivars, educating the garden community, supporting research on magnolias, and serving as the international registration authority for new magnolia cultivars. Our Society has over 600 members including nurserymen, home gardeners, horticulturists, authors, botanists, and researchers from 40 countries.”

MSPP – Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology: “A professional scientific body with excellent leadership in encouraging and promoting the development of plant physiology as pure and applied phase of botanical science.”

MTD – “Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) — Loosely, the highest dose of a chemical that when administered to a group of test animals does not increase the death rate during a long-term study. The purpose of administering MTD is to determine whether long-term exposure to a chemical might lead to any adverse health effects in a population, when the level of exposure is not sufficient to cause premature mortality due to short-term toxic effects. The maximum dose is used, rather than a lower dose, to reduce the number of animals that need to be tested (and thus, the cost of animal testing), in order to detect an effect that occurs only rarely. This analysis is used in establishing chemical residue tolerances in foods.” (Womach, 2006)

MTRI – Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute is “a non-profit cooperative with a mandate to promote sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity conservation in the Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve and beyond through research, education, and the operation of a field station.” Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute, 9 Mount Merritt Road, PO Box 215, Kempt, Queens County,, Nova Scotia, Canada, B0T 1BO

MUSY – “Multiple use — According to the Multiple Use, Sustained Yield Act of 1960 (P.L. 86-517), multiple use of the national forests means the “harmonious and coordinated management of the various resources, each with the other, without impairment of the productivity of the land, with consideration being given to the relative values of the various resources, and not necessarily the combination of uses that will give the greatest dollar return or the greatest unit output.” Multiple use implies a sustained yield of outdoor recreation, range, timber, watershed, and wildlife and fish values.” (Womach, 2006)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation, Diet….

m – metre

MAD – Maple, Ash, and Dogwood i.e. plants with opposite leaves.Expanded to MAD Horse Buck, that is: MAD + Horse Chestnut, Buckeye and Viburnum

MCT – Medium-chain triglycerides, usually a mixture of coconut oil, palm oil, and oils from dairy products, a kind of oil recommended in many specialty diets

med. – medio, in the middle, as in the middle of a time period (mid-month)

mm. – millimetre

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • MAG – Magnoliaceae – dicot
  • MAL – Malaceae – dicot
  • MAR – Martyniaceae – dicot
  • MAT – Matoniaceae – pteridophyte
  • MAY – Mayacaceae – monocot
  • MCS – Monachosoraceae – pteridophyte
  • MDA – Medusandraceae – dicot
  • MDG – Medusagynaceae – dicot
  • MEL – Meliaceae – dicot
  • MIM – Mimosaceae – dicot
  • MIS – Misodendraceae – dicot
  • MLH – Malesherbiaceae – dicot
  • MLN – Melanthiaceae – monocot
  • MLO – Meliosmaceae – dicot
  • MLP – Malpighiaceae – dicot
  • MLP* – Melanophyllaceae – dicot
  • MLS – Melastomataceae – dicot
  • MLV – Malvaceae – dicot
  • MMC – Memecyclaceae – dicot
  • MNA – Morinaceae – dicot
  • MND – Mendonciaceae – dicot
  • MNM – Monimiaceae – dicot
  • MNS – Menispermaceae – dicot
  • MNT – Monotropaceae – dicot
  • MNT** – Muntingiaceae – dicot
  • MNY – Menyanthaceae – dicot
  • MOL – Molluginaceae – dicot
  • MOR – Moraceae – dicot
  • MPH – Myriophyllaceae – dicot
  • MRC – Marcgraviaceae – dicot
  • MRG – Moringaceae – dicot
  • MRN – Marantaceae – monocot
  • MRS – Myrsinaceae – dicot
  • MRT – Myrtaceae – dicot
  • MSL – Marsileaceae – pteridophyte
  • MSM – Mesembryanthemaceae – dicot
  • MSP – Mespilaceae – dicot
  • MSX – Mastixiaceae – dicot
  • MTH – Melianthaceae – dicot
  • MTM – Myrothamnaceae – dicot
  • MTN – Montiniaceae – dicot
  • MTR – Mitrastemonaceae – dicot
  • MTT – Marattiaceae – pteridophyte
  • MTT** – Metteniusaceae – dicot
  • MTX – Metaxyaceae – pteridophyte
  • MUS – Musaceae – monocot
  • MYO – Myoporaceae – dicot
  • MYR – Myricaceae – dicot
  • MYS – Myristicaceae – dicot
  • MYZ – Myzodendraceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

M – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Methionine

MAA – Maackia amurensis agglutinin, a lectin


Mb – megabase pairs, a million bases, a measure of length for chromosomes.


Met – abbreviation for the amino acid Methionine

Mg – element – Magnesium

MGDG – molecule – monogalactosyl diglyceride

MITEs – miniature inverted repeat transposable elements

MIXTA – genes coding MIXTA proteins, characterized in Antirrhinumand Gossypium as relating to trichome development

MLO – organism – Mycoplasma-like organismsMn – element – Magnesium

Mo – element


MPA – Maclura pomifera agglutinin – a lectin MTOC – Microtubule Organizing Center

MYB – a transcription factor protein, the first MYB gene described in plants is C1 from Zea mays (see a chart for MYB proteins and their functions in: MYB transcription factor genes as regulators for plant responses: an overview, Supriya Ambawat, Poonam Sharma, NeelamYadav, and Ram C. Yadav, 2013. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. Jul; 19(3): 307–321. Published online 2013 Apr 26. doi: 10.1007/s12298-013-0179-1 MYC


  • M – Botanische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany
  • MA Real Jardín Botánico Herbarium, Madrid, Spain
  • MAAS – Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands
  • MACF – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Fullerton, California
  • MAF – Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
  • MAK – Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
  • MAKAR – Herbar Biokovskog Podrucja, Institut Planina i More, Makarska, Croatia
  • MALG- Herbarium Malangensis, East Java, Malang, Indonesia
  • MALS – Manti-La Sal National Forest Herbarium, Price, Utah
  • MANCH – University of Manchester, Manchester, England, UK
  • MANK – Darlene and William Radichel Herbarium, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Mankato, Minnesota
  • MARO – Marylhurst College Herbarium, Marylhurst, Oregon
  • MB – University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  • MBK – Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden, Kochi, Japan MBM – Museu Botânico Municipal, Curitiba, Brasil
  • MCA – Muhlenberg College Herbarium, Allentown, Pennsylvania
  • MCJ – Missouri Southern State College Herbarium, Joplin, Missouri
  • MCN – McNeese State University Herbarium, Lake Charles, Louisiana
  • MCT; MCTC – Michigan Technological University Herbarium, Houghton, Michigan
  • MCTF – Michigan Technological University Herbarium, L’Anse, Michigan
  • MDKY – Morehead State University Herbarium, Morehead, Kentucky
  • MEL – Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of Victoria, South Yarra, Melbourne, Australia
  • MELU – University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • MEM – University of Memphis Herbarium, Memphis, Tennessee
  • MESA – Mesa State College Herbarium, Grand Junction, Colorado
  • MEXU – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City D. F., Mexico
  • MFU – Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine, Italy
  • MG – Museu Paraense EmÌlio Goeldi, Belém, Brasil
  • MGC – Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain
  • MH – Botanical Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
  • MHA – Main Botanical Garden 9Главный ботанический сад имени Н.В. Цицина), Moscow, Russia
  • MI – Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
  • MICH- University of Michigan Herbarium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • MIL – Milwaukee Public Museum Herbarium, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • MISSA – Mississippi State University Herbarium, Mississippi State, Mississippi
  • MJSD – Muséum-Jardin des Sciences, Dijon, France
  • MMNS – Mississippi Museum of Natural Science Herbarium, Jackson, Mississippi
  • MNA – Walter B. McDougall Herbarium, Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Arizona
  • MO – Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri
  • MOAR – Morris Arboretum Herbarium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • MODNR – Division of State Parks Herbarium, Jefferson City, Missouri
  • MONT – Montana State University Herbarium, Bozeman, Montana
  • MOR – Morton Arboretum Herbarium, Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois
  • MOT- Mote Marine Laboratory Herbarium, Sarasota, Florida
  • MOVC – Cornell College Herbarium, Mount Vernon, Iowa
  • MPU – Université Montpellier, Montpellier, France
  • MRC – Rocky Mountain Research Station Herbarium, Missoula, Montana
  • MRD – Moorhead State University Herbarium, Moorhead, Minnesota
  • MRSN – Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Italy
  • MSB – Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, München, Germany
  • MSC – Michigan State University Herbarium, East Lansing, Michigan
  • MSCW – Mississippi University for Women Herbarium, Columbus, Mississippi
  • MSTR – Westfälisches Museum für Naturkunde, Münster, Germany
  • MSUB – Billings Herbarium, Montana State University, Billings, Montana
  • MT – Herbier Marie-Victorin, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • MTMG – McGill University Herbarium, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • MTSU – Middle Tennessee State University Herbarium, Murfreesboro, Tennessee
  • MU – Willard Sherman Turrell Herbarium, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio
  • MUB – Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  • MUHW – Marshall University Herbarium, Huntington, West Virginia
  • MUR – Murray State University Herbarium, Murray, Kentucky
  • MUS – Muskingum College Herbarium, New Concord, Ohio
  • MUSK- Muskegon Community College Herbarium, Muskegon, Michigan
  • MVM, MVFA – Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay
  • MVSC – James C. Parks Herbarium, Millersville University, Millersville, Pennsylvania
  • MW – Moscow State University (Московский государственный университет), Moscow, Russia
  • MWCF – Mary Washington College Herbarium, Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • MWSJ – Leo Galloway Herbarium, Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, Missouri


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

NAFA – “the National Alliance of Floral Associations – Where Florist Associations Exchange Ideas & Improve Their Programs.”

NAFEX – “The North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX) is a network of individuals throughout the United States and Canada devoted to the discovery, cultivation and appreciation of superior varieties of fruits and nuts. ¶Founded in 1967 by a small group of pomological hobbyists, NAFEX has grown to an organization of more than 3,000 members, and is chartered as a nonprofit organization in the state of Illinois. Although the ranks of our membership include professional pomologists, nurserymen, and commercial orchardists, NAFEX members are all AMATEURS in the truest sense of the word; they are motivated by their LOVE of fine fruit. NAFEX members typically work together to help each other by sharing ideas, information, experiences, and propagating material. ¶We communicate with each other via our online list and POMONA, a quarterly journal assembled largely from articles submitted by the membership which is published online in the Members’ Only section of the website and in one printed issue annually. A diverse assortment of interests and approaches are represented. While many of us are involved in collecting and growing well-known fruit like apples and pears, others are specialists in so- called “minor” fruit such as mayhaws, kiwis, persimmons, and pawpaws.

NAFTA – “North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) — A multilateral agreement negotiated by the United States, Canada and Mexico that sets forth agreements to lower and/or eliminate unfairtrade barriers that affect the trade of goods and services between the three countries. The President signed the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (P.L. 103-182) in December 1993 and NAFTA entered into force on January 1, 1994. The agriculture portion of NAFTA effectively is three bilateral agreements; U.S./Mexico, Mexico/Canada, and U.S./Canada. The U.S.-Canada agricultural agreement in NAFTA was negotiated previously as part of the U.S.- Canada Free Trade Agreement.” (Womach, 2005)

NAGC – North American Gladiolus Council. “The organization collects gladiolus literature and artifacts from throughout the world and honors outstanding gladiolus cultivars (varieties) and individuals who have notably contributed to gladiolus culture. The artifacts are filed or are on display at the library which is open to the public. ”

NAHS – The purpose of The Society is: (1) The advancement and knowledge of the botanical genera CallunaCassiopeDaboeciaErica, and Phyllodoce, commonly called heather, and related genera; (2) The dissemination of information on heather; and (3) promotion of fellowship among those interested in heather.

NAIPC – “About National Association of Invasive Plant Councils. The chapters of NAIPC consist of state and regional (multi-state) Exotic Pest Plant Councils (EPPCs) and Invasive Plant Councils (IPCs). These non-profit, volunteer-based groups bring together professional natural resource managers, scientists and others to collaboratively work on preventing, eradicating, and managing invasive plants within their state or states. Goals: To facilitate communication between EPPCs, especially regarding issues and policies of national importance on exotic pest plants that threaten natural areas and wildlands; To communicate and represent the interests of EPPCs on issues and policies of national importance regarding invasive exotic pest plants that threaten natural areas and wildlands; To support the formation and growth of EPPCs, and to provide a forum for all EPPCs to share in and benefit from the information generated by each EPPC and thisassociation; To provide support for the implementation of national invasive species initiatives and other activities of national importance. History: The National Association of Invasive Plant Councils (NAIPC) was established in October 1995 by the signature of representatives of the first four state and regional Exotic Pest Plant Councils (see Founding MOU). NAIPC was established because the Exotic Pest Plant Councils recognized the value of cooperation through a national association of like organizations that share common goals. The preamble of the Original MOU stated that there is power in organization, strength in numbers, and that some problems are national in scope and are most appropriately addressed by a national organization.”

NAL – “National Agricultural Library (NAL) — A national depository of scientific and popular agricultural information located at the Agricultural Research Service’s research center in Beltsville, Maryland. NAL ’ s administration was merged with ARS in 1994.” (Womach, 2005) “The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States and houses one of the world’s largest collections devoted to agriculture and its related sciences.” (NAL website)

NANPS – “NANPS was founded in 1985 by a small group of dedicated conservationists as the Canadian Wildflower Society. As our American membership grew, and acknowledging that plants don’t recognize political boundaries, we changed our name to the North American Native Plant Society in 1999. In 1985 we founded North America’s foremost native plant magazine: Wildflower. The original magazine ceased publication in 2004, but it’s name lives on under the editorship of Texas’s Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Centre. In place of Wildflower, NANPS continues to publish a 16 page quarterly, The Blazing Star.”

NAPPO – North American Plant Protection Organization

NAPRALERT – “NAPRALERT® is a relational database of all natural products, including ethnomedical information, pharmacological / biochemical information of extracts of organisms in vitro, in situ, in vivo, in humans (case reports, non-clinical trials) and clinical studies. Similar information is available for secondary metabolites from natural sources.

Background: In 1975 the system began a systematic search of the literature by examining every journal pertinent to natural products in our UIC Health Science Library, as well as viewing the Table of Contents of a large number of journals from the Internet on a regular (monthly) basis. These journals were selected from a list of journals that historically we knew contained pertinent data for the system. In addition pertinent sections of Chemical Abstracts, particularly the Biochemistry Section, were examined for articles not found in our Library sources and original articles were obtained via Interlibrary Loans. We are fortunate also to have many foreign journals in which articles are rarely found through the aforementioned sources.

To date more than 200,000 scientific papers and reviews are included in NAPRALERT, representing organisms from all countries of the world, including marine organisms, including the geographic origin from where the organisms were obtained

NARGS – North American Rock Garden Society: “an organization of people interested in perennial plants that grow well among rocks and that are relatively short.”

NAS – The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, nonprofit organization of the country’s leading researchers. The NAS recognizes and promotes outstanding science through election to membership; publication in its journal, PNAS; and its awards, programs, and special activities. “ Through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the NAS provides objective, science-based advice on critical issues affecting the nation.” (United States)

NASF – “Established in 1920, the National Association of State Foresters is a non-profit organization composed of the directors of forestry agencies in the states, U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia.”

NASS – “The USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) conducts hundreds of surveys every year and prepares reports covering virtually every aspect of U.S. agriculture. Production and supplies of food and fiber, prices paid and received by farmers, farm labor and wages, farm finances, chemical use, and changes in the demographics of U.S. producers are only a few examples. NASS is committed to providing timely, accurate, and useful statistics in service to U.S. agriculture. To uphold our continuing commitment, NASS will: Report the facts on American agriculture, facts needed by people working in and depending upon U.S. agriculture; Provide objective and unbiased statistics on a pre-announced schedule that is fair and impartial to all market participants; Conduct the Census of Agriculture every five years, providing the only source of consistent, comparable, and detailed agricultural data for every county in America; Serve the needs of our data users and customers at a local level through our network of State field offices and our cooperative relationship with universities and State Departments of Agriculture; Safeguard the privacy offarmers, ranchers, and other data providers, with a guarantee that confidentiality and data security continue to be our top priorities..”

NBPGR – National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources: A nodal organization in India for the management of plant genetic resources. Mandate – Management and promote sustainable use of plant genetic and genomic resources of agri-horticultural crop and carry out related research; Coordination and capacity building in PGR management and policy issues governing access and benefit sharing of their use; Molecular profile of varieties of agri-horticultural crop and GM detection technology research… Objectives of NBPGR – To plan, organize, conduct and coordinate exploration and collection of indigenous and exotic plant genetic resources; To undertake introduction, exchange and quarantine of plant genetic resources; To characterize, evaluate, document and conserve crop genetic resources and promote their use, in collaboration with other national organizations; To develop information network on plant genetic resources; To conduct research, undertake teaching and training, develop guidelines and create public awareness on plant genetic resources.” See their website for a complete history. See also ICARNCBI – “The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information.”

NCCPF – “A school sponsored by the NC State Florists Association… to offer its members and to add purpose to the association.”

NCCPG – “The National Plant Collection scheme is the main conservation vehicle whereby the Plant Heritage, formerly National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG) can accomplish its mission: to conserve, grow, propagate, document and make available the resource of garden plants that exists in the United Kingdom.With the National Plant Collections, individuals or organisations undertake to document, develop, and preserve a comprehensive collection of one group of plants in trust for the future. Most of the collections are composed of a related group, for example, a collection of oaks or daffodils. This allows the scheme to develop systematic coverage of cultivated plants in the United Kingdom.”

NCEAS – “NCEAS conducts transformational science focused on informing solutions that will allow people and nature to thrive. We are an independent research affiliate of the University of California, Santa Barbara, with a global network and impact. ¶We work to accelerate scientific discoveries that will enhance our understanding of the world and benefit people and nature, as well as to transform the scientific culture to be more open, efficient, and collaborative. We do this by: Enabling collaborations between the brightest minds in the environmental sciences; Conducting breakthrough science that is grounded in big-picture thinking; Improving analyses through computing innovations that increase the (re)usability of data; Partnering with agencies and organizations that can help put the science to action; Training and inspiring generations of scientists to practice synthesis and open science.” (See also BIEN)

NCNPS – North Carolina Native Plant Society: “Our mission is to promote the enjoyment and conservation of North Carolina’s native plants and their habitats through education, protection, propagation, and advocacy.”

NCPN – “The National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) is a voluntary association of specialty crop networks that have joined to promote the use of pathogen-tested, healthy plant material for food crops in the United States. The NCPN operates under the auspices of three agencies within the United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). A memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the three federal agencies was signed in 2009 containing an agreement to cooperatively support research, quarantine and outreach activities for the newly-organized NCPN. ¶The impetus for the organization of the NCPN came from the grape and fruit tree industries, who in 2005 initiated a series of meetings to explore the formation of a national group devoted to focusing on foundation materials that are tested, treated and maintained as a healthy source of plant materials for growers in the United States. In 2008, the grape and fruit tree networks were developed by stakeholders, industry members, scientists and other interested parties for those respective specialty crops. In 2010, berries, citrus and hops were added to the NCPN. Each specialty crop network has its own board and charter.”

NCS – The National Chrysanthemum Society was incorporated as a non-profit organization in 1954. It has members living in nearly all states in the USA and many foreign countries. The Society’s members include chrysanthemum specialists, horticulturists, nurserymen, as well as garden clubs, botanical gardens, universities, and libraries. NCS is primarily for the amateur gardener who enjoys growing chrysanthemums, but also welcomes commercial growers.

NCSFA – “…the North Carolina State Florists Association mission is to help the floral industry BLOOM to its fullest potential, GROW in strength and numbers and SHARE design skills and knowledge.”NGB – National Garden Bureau: Touch base with this organization to learn about new plant introductions, etc….

NGC – National Garden Clubs: “With eight regions, 50 state garden clubs and the National Capital Area, 70 national affiliated organizations within the United States, 300 international affiliated organizations around the globe combined with 6,000 member garden clubs and 200,000 members; NGC is the largest volunteer organization of its type in the world. Our members come together to create a powerful international voice and synergistic network for advancing common interests.”

NENA – “The New England Nursery Association (NENA) is dedicated to providing nursery professionals with the most current and highest quality information. Since 1912, NENA has worked to benefit those in the business of growing and selling green goods.”NENPS – Nebraska Native Plant Society. “The Nebraska Native Plant Society was established in 2007”

NEPPO – Near East Plant Protection Organization

NEWS – “New England Wild Flower Society conserves native plants in the wild and encourages gardeners and landscape professionals to choose natives when they plant outdoor spaces, particularly plants grown from local seeds, harvested sustainably in the wild. Our mission is to conserve and promote the region’s native plants to ensure healthy, biologically diverse landscapes.”

NFF – “Chartered by Congress, the National Forest Foundation was created in 1993 with a simple mission: bring people together to restore and enhance our National Forests and Grasslands. As the nonprofit partner of the U.S. Forest Service, we work with the agency and thousands of Americans each year to promote the health and public enjoyment of our 193-million-acre National Forest System. We believe that communities should play a leading role in determining the future of our National Forests and Grasslands, so we focus our efforts on connecting these communities, and the people who comprise them, to the tools, knowledge, and funding to become active and devoted stewards of this incredible public estate.”

NFS – National Forest System (see FS)

NGC – National Garden Clubs: “The first garden club in America was founded in January 1891 by The Ladies Garden Club of Athens, Georgia. On May 1, 1929, 13 federated states became charter members at an organizational meeting in Washington, D.C. In 1935, the National Garden Clubs established headquarters at Rockefeller Center in NewYork City. A permanent headquarters building in St. Louis was dedicated May 10, 1958. ¶Today, National Garden Clubs, Inc., (NGC) is a not-for-profit educational organization headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri USA, adjacent to the Missouri Botanical Gardens. Overall, we promote the love of gardening, floral design, and civic and environmental responsibility and we help coordinate the interests and activities of state and local garden clubs in the U.S. and abroad. ¶Our organization comprises 50 state garden clubs and the National Capital Area, 5,000 member garden clubs, and 175,000 members.Additionally, NGC has 60 national affiliated organizations within the United States and nearly 330 international affiliated organizations with locations ranging around the globe including: Canada, Mexico, South America, Bermuda, South Africa, Australia, and Japan.”

NGRAC – “In 1990, the U.S. Congress authorized establishment of a National Genetic Resources Program (NGRP). It is the NGRP’s responsibility to: acquire, characterize, preserve, document, and distribute to scientists, germplasm of all lifeforms important for food and agricultural production. The National Genetic Resources Advisory Council (NGRAC) advises and makes recommendations to the Secretary and Director of the NGRP. The NGRAC responds to the important issues of the nation in respect to conserving and utilizing genetic resources for food and agriculture.” (See also GRIM, NPGS, NGRP)NGRP – “In 1990, the U.S. Congress authorized establishment of a National Genetic Resources Program (NGRP). It is the NGRP’s responsibility to: acquire, characterize, preserve, document, and distribute to scientists, germplasm of all lifeforms important for food and agricultural production.” (See also GRIM, NPGS, NGRAC)

NHPS – “The Native Hawaiian Plant Society (NHPS) is a volunteer- based nonprofit organization whose mission it is to preserve and restore Hawaiian native plants in their native ecosystems. Publiceducation and cooperation with like-minded entities are recognized to be major components of preservation.”

NICE! – “NICE! ™ is an acronym for “Natives Instead of Common Exotics. a program of the Native Plant Society of Texas”

NIFA – “The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) provides leadership and funding for programs that advance agriculture-related sciences. We invest in and support initiatives that ensure the long-term viability of agriculture. NIFA applies an integrated approach to ensure that groundbreaking discoveries inagriculture-related sciences and technologies reach the people who can put them into practice. NIFA — a federal agency within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) — is part of USDA’s Research, Education, and Economics (REE) mission area. Theagency administers federal funding to address the agricultural issues impacting people’s daily lives and the nation’s future.”

NLCP – “The Native Plant Society of Texas created the Native Landscape Certification Program in order to encourage a migration of Texans back to nature that will reap priceless benefits for our families, environment, and economy.”

NJHA – “The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA) was founded in 1934 and was the first organization in the world dedicated solely to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of, and develop skills in the ever expanding art and science of horticulture. These programs help the horticultural industry by training and recruiting youth in many specialized fields of horticulture. NJHA also develops citizen appreciation for the understanding of the industry by placing emphasis on positive programs for building producer-consumer understanding.”

NNPS – “The Nevada Native Plant Society (NNPS) is a non-profit corporation organized solely for educational, scientific and charitablepurposes for the stimulation of interest in and the developing of an appreciation for native Nevada plants and their preservation.”

NOAA – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOCI – “Native Orchid Conservation Inc. is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to foster an awareness of and protect unique ecosystems and their plant communities. This primarily involves native orchids, but also extends to other rare and/or endangered plants. It objectives: Identify areas containing rare native plant species; Work alone or with other conservation bodies, governments and corporations to conserve native plant species; Conduct research and field studies, and preserve data on specimens of native plants; Foster an awareness and appreciation of rare native plant species in the field and through educational displays; Provide an association and a voice for those interested in the conservation of native plants and the natural environment; [and] Provide field trips and opportunities for study for students and the general public interested in learning more about Manitoba’s native plant species.”

NOP – “National Organic Program — A program authorized by the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (Title 21 of the 1990 farm bill (P.L. 101-624) that went into operation in October 2002 (7 CFR 205). The NOP sets national standards for organic farming practices, and accredits organizations and people who perform farm visits to certify that a farm meets the standards and may label its products USDA Organic.” (Womack, 2005)

NOSB – “National Organic Standards Board — A board established by Title 21 of the 1990 farm bill (P.L. 101-624) to develop national standards for practices and substances to be used in implementing a National Organic Program (NOP). The Board is to evaluate new practices and inputs (e.g., fertilizers) as they develop and determine whether or not they are acceptable under the program.” (Womach, 2005)

NPCA – National Parks Conservation Association: “We’re protecting and enhancing America’s National Park System for present and future generations.”

NPCC – “The Native Plant Conservation Campaign is a network of Affiliate native plant societies and other native plant conservation organizations throughout the United States. [Its mission] is to promote the conservation of native plants and their habitats through collaboration, education, and advocacy.”

NPCI – “National Fish and Wildlife Foundation’s Native Plant Conservation Initiative (NPCI) Grants: Since 1995, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation has partnered with the PCA on this grant program to benefit the conservation and restoration of native plants and their ecosystems throughout the United States. As of February, 2018, NPCI had funded 276 projects, worth a total of more than $14 million in plant conservation, over the past fifteen years.” See also the BGCI website.

NPGS – ”The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is collaborative effort to safeguard the genetic diversity of agriculturally important plants. The NPGS is managed by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Funding for the NPGS comes primarily through appropriations from the U.S. Congress. However, the NPGS is a partnership between the public and private sectors. Many NPGS genebanks are located at state land-grant university sites, which contribute lab, office, greenhouse and field space for operations, as well as staff for technical and support services. The private sector is a major user of the NPGS collections and is the primary means by which new and improved plants are commercialized.The mission of the NPGS is to support agricultural production by: acquiring crop germplasm; conserving crop germplasm; evaluating and characterizing crop germplasm; documenting crop germplasm; & distributing crop germplasm” (see also GRIN, NGRP, & NGRAC)

NPS – The US National Park Service, a bureau of the US Department of the Interior. “The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The National Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.”

NPSBC – Native Plant Society of British Columbia: “We are close to 200 people from British Columbia and beyond who appreciate, enjoy, study and work with BC’s native plants and their habitats. We are naturalists, gardeners, botanists, biologists, forest ecologists, plant propagators, landscapers and more The society was founded in 1997and based on learning more about native plants and their habitats, sharing information, and making a commitment to the ethical use of native plants as well as their conservation and stewardship.”

NPSMN – “The Native Plant Society of New Mexico (NPSNM) is a non- profit organization that strives to educate the public about native plants by promoting knowledge of plant identification, ecology, and uses; fostering plant conservation and the preservation of natural habitats; supporting botanical research; and encouraging the appropriate use of native plants to conserve water, land, and wildlife.We have approximately 800 members in 7 chapters located throughout New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. We welcome you to explore our website and learn more about New Mexico’s native plants and the organization that celebrates and conserves them. Please join us!”

NPSNJ – “The Native Plant Society of New Jersey is a statewide non- profit organization dedicated to the appreciation, protection, and study of the native flora of New Jersey. Founded in 1985, we have hundreds of members across the state, and are organized into county and regional chapters. Our members include gardeners, horticulturists, naturalists, landscape designers, students, and native plant enthusiasts from all walks of life.”

NPSO – “Native Plant Society of Oregon works tirelessly for plant and habitat conservation. Oregon would not have an Endangered Species Act if, in the mid-80s, NPSO members had not sought out farsighted legislators, attended endless committee meetings, testified at hearings, and educated legislative staff in order to explain the importance of plant protection. ¶Today, NPSO state conservation chairs track major issues and chapters are involved in local efforts to protect and conserve threatened and endangered species. We carry out rare plant surveys and monitoring programs; we have developed guidelines and policy regarding native plant gardening, ethics, grazing, mining, and forest management; and we are involved in plant salvage and re- introduction.”

NPSoT – “The mission of the Native Plant Society of Texas is to promote research, conservation and utilization of native plants and plant habitats of Texas through education, outreach and example. We want all Texans to value native plants, native habitats and healthy ecosystems as essential to the well-being of living things and to our quality of life. Our vision is a future where native habitats are managed as critically beneficial natural assets, and where residential and commercial developments employ sustainable designs that preserve and promote native habitats.”

NPSP – “The Native Plant Stewardship Program began in 1996 in response to numerous requests for public information about native plants and native plant habitats. This community-based program is designed to provide opportunities for citizens to conserve, protect, and sustain the biodiversity of the native flora in Washington. Local citizens become stakeholders in the education, preservation, and restoration of native plants and their habitats through Native Plant Steward training. Their contributions are critical to sustaining air and water quality, habitat for fish, birds, and other wildlife, and the overall biodiversity of the Pacific Northwest.”

NPSS – “Welcome to the Native Plant Society of Saskatchewan! Whether you’re an educator, naturalist, gardener, landowner, professional or are just curious we have something for you. We offer workshops, tours, conferences and other learning events throughout the year. We also have information on topics such as restoration, rare plants, native seed and plants, invasive plants and natural habitats and ecosystems.”

NRDC – “Natural Resources Defense Council works to safeguard the earth—its people, its plants and animals, and the natural systems on which all life depends.

NSF – “The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress [USA] in 1950 “to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…”

NSGC – The National Small Grains Collection is centered in Aberdeen, Idaho, and is a unit of NPGS.

NSR – “The Native Species Resolver (NSR) uses a database of regional taxonomic checklists to determine if observations of a species within political divisions (country, state/province, county/parish, etc.)are native or introduced. The decision that species X is introduced in political division Y can be based on one or more of three criteria: 1 Presence in a checklist for region y, with status of “introduced”; 2 Absence from a comprehensive list of species native to region Y; 3 Endemism in (restricted to) a region other than region Y” (See also BIEN, TNRS)

NSSL – The National Seed Storage Laboratory, at Ft. Collins, Colorado, is a unit of NPGS.

NWRS – “National Wildlife Refuge System — Consists of all of the National Wildlife Refuges, the Waterfowl Production Areas, and certain other small tracts managed by states under cooperativeagreements with the Fish and Wildlife Service. In general, these areas are managed primarily for conservation of wild plants and animals (particularly waterfowl). Other uses, such as recreation, grazing, energy development, etc., are permitted to the extent they are compatible with the conservation purpose. Some refuges have additional purposes defined in law.” (Womach, 2005)

NYFA -”The New York Flora Association was founded in 1990 with the goal of promoting field botany and a greater understanding of the plants that grow wild in New York State. The goals of the organization are: to promote the study of New York State’s Flora; to encourage the production of botanical publications that are educational to the public and beneficial to the scientific community; To provide an umbrella organization for field and herbarium botanists that can represent their points of view; to serve as an information exchange for botanically related organizations and botanists active in New York State; to foster the pursuit of common interests; to support the continued development of the New York Flora Atlas; and to promote conservation of native plants and natural communities.”

NZSPB – “The New Zealand Society of Plant Biologists (NZSPB) promotes the teaching and research of plant biology in New Zealand, and encourages the exchange of information among those with an interest in plant biology.” (GPC website)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

natur. – abbreviation for “naturalized” – used in plant descriptions for exotic plants that have escaped from cultivation and have established in the native landscape.

nom. cons. – nomen conservandum, a name to be conserved (conserved, in that an exception has been carved out to allow a well- known plant name to remain in use, even though nomenclatural rules would normally accept a different one)

nom. illeg. – nomen illegitimum, an illegitimate name

nom. nov. – in taxonomy, this term marks publication of a new scientific name

nom. rej. – nomen rejiciendum, a name to be rejected

nom. utique rej. – nomen utique rejiciendum, a name will be suppressed, rejected outright.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • NAJ – Najadaceae – dicot
  • NAN – Nandinaceae – dicot
  • NAP – Napoleonaceae – dicot
  • NAR** – Nartheciaceae – monocot
  • NAU – Naucleaceae – dicot
  • NEG – Negripteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • NEL – Nelumbonaceae – dicot
  • NEP – Nepenthaceae – dicot
  • NIT – Nitrariaceae – dicot
  • NMN – Neumanniaceae – dicot
  • NOL – Nolanaceae – dicot
  • NPH – Nephrolepidaceae – pteridophyte
  • NRD – Neuradaceae – dicot
  • NSO* – Nesogenaceae – dicot
  • NTF** – Nothofagaceae – dicot
  • NYC – Nyctaginaceae – dicot
  • NYM – Nymphaeaceae – dicot
  • NYP – Nypaceae – monocot
  • NYS – Nyssaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

N – element – Nitrogen

N – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Asparginine

Na – element – Sodium



NHEJ – genetic – Non-homologous end joining

Ni – element – Nickel

NIVEA (NIV) – “along with PALLIDA (PAL) , needed for ANTHOCYANIN pigmentation of the flower. Harrison, Carpenter, Stickland and Fincham showed that NIV probably encoded the biosynthetic enzyme chalcone synthase5 and that unstable alleles differed in their sensitivity to temperature and a genetic stabilizer, which indicated that they might carry different transposable elements6,7. Heinz Saedler recognized that the Antirrhinum majus NIV gene could be isolated using the newly identified parsley chalcone synthase gene as a probe. This led to the cloning of NIV in the group of Hans Sommer 8 and the first isolation of an AUTONOMOUS TRANSPOSON from a plant, Tam1, from an unstable niv allele9.” (Quoted from: An everlasting pioneer: the story of Antirrhinum research, Zsuzsanna Schwarz-Sommer, Brendan Davies and Andrew Hudson, Nature/Reviews/Genetics, August 2003, on-line…)

NPA – Narcissus pseudonarcissus agglutinin – a lectin

NO –

NOAEL – “No observable adverse effect level — From long-term toxicological studies of agricultural chemical active ingredients, levels which indicate a safe, lifetime exposure level. Used in setting pesticide residue tolerances.” (Womach, 2005)


NOZZLE – gene


  • N – Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
  • NAI – University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  • NAP- Università Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
  • NAS – Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
  • NASC – Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Herbarium, North Adams, Massachusetts
  • NATC – Northwestern State University Herbarium, Natchitoches, Louisiana
  • NAVA – Navajo Nation Herbarium, Navajo Nation/Northern Arizona University, Window Rock, Arizona
  • NBG, SAM – South African National Biodiversity Institute, Claremont, Western Cape Province. South Africa
  • NBYC – Newberry College Herbarium, Newberry, South Carolina
  • NCAS – Rutgers University Herbarium, Newark, New Jersey
  • NCATG – North Carolina A & T State University Herbarium, Greensboro, North Carolina
  • NCC – North Coast Herbarium of California Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California
  • NCSC – North Carolina State University Herbarium, Raleigh, North Carolina
  • NCU – University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
  • NDA – North Dakota State University Herbarium, Fargo, North Dakota
  • NE – N.C.W. Beadle Herbarium, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia
  • NEBC – New England Botanical Club Herbarium, Cambridge, MassachusettsNEMU – Newark Museum Herbarium, Newark, New Jersey
  • NEU – Université de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • NEUN – Near East University Herbarium, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • NFLD – Agnes Marion Ayre Herbarium, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador
  • NHES – Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Herbarium, New Haven, Connecticut
  • NHI – National Herbarium, Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • NHNE – Michael Wirth Herbarium, New England College, Henniker, New Hampshire
  • NICE Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Nice, Nice, France
  • NICH – Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Nichinan, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan
  • NLU – Herbarium of the University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana
  • NM – Northern Michigan University Herbarium, Marquette, Michigan
  • NMC – New Mexico State University Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico
  • NMCR – Range Science Herbarium, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico
  • NMLU – Natur-Museum Luzern, Lucerne, Switzerland
  • NMMA – Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association Herbarium, Nantucket, Massachusetts
  • NMSU – Northwest Missouri State University Herbarium, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri
  • NMW – National Museums & Galleries of Wales, Cardiff, Wales, UKNOSU – Joe M. Anderson Herbarium, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, Oklahoma
  • NOT – Nottingham Natural History Museum, Nottingham, England, UK
  • NOU – Herbarium of IRD Nouméa, Nouméa, New Caledonia
  • NPWRC – Northern Prairie Research Center Herbarium, Jamestown, North Dakota
  • NRRL – National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA/ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, Illinois
  • NS, NSK – Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • NSDA – Nevada Division of Agriculture Herbarium, Reno, Nevada
  • NSMC – Nevada State Museum Herbarium, Carson City, Nevada
  • NSW – Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • NTM – Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Nantes, Nantes, France
  • NTS – Nevada Operations Office Herbarium, U.S. Department of Energy, Las Vegas, Nevada
  • NU – University of KwaZulu-Natal, Bews Herbarium, Scottsville, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa
  • NUV – Norwich University Herbarium, Norwich University, Northfield, Vermont
  • NWOSU – Northwestern Oklahoma State University Herbarium, Alva, Oklahoma
  • NY – The William and Lynda Steere Herbarium, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York
  • NYS – New York State Museum Herbarium, Albany, New York
  • NZFRI – New Zealand Forest Research Institute (Scion), National Forestry Herbarium, Rotorua, New Zealand


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, Programs, & Publications…

ÖAPP – Österreichischer Arbeitskreis für Pflanzenbiologie/ Austrian Society of Plant Biologists (search also ATSPB): “Die ATSPB wurde 1971 unter seinem ursprünglichen Namen ÖAPP gegründet. Die Gesellschaft wird von einem durch die Generalversammlung gewählten Vorstand geleitet. Derzeit befindet sich die ATSPB -Leitung an der Universität Innsbruck. Die ATSPB gehört dem FESPB (Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology) an.”

OEPP – Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes (See English EPPO)

OFGA – “The Organic Fruit Growers Association is a non-profit organization dedicated to the interests of growers and advancing the organic industry through education, advocacy, and research. “

OGFN – The Old-Growth Forest Network: “The preservation of unique and beautiful tracts of land as National Parks is often called America’s Best Idea. Present generations are profoundly grateful for the foresight and effort that went into setting aside the parks that we enjoy today. Now it is our turn to do what we can for those who will come after us. I propose our gift to the future be a network of old-growth (or futureold-growth) forests across the Country. In these forests, visitors will be able to experience native forests in their mature diversity and complexity..” From writer and founder Joan Maloof: “The idea for the Old-Growth Forest Network was born in 2007 during my forest travels. The organization would identify and help protect one forest in each county of the U.S. where forests could grow (approximately 2,370counties out of 3,140) and let people know where they were located. In this way, I believe, we could help stop the destruction of what old- growth remained, help some forests recover, and enable more Americans to experience an old forest.” (March, 2018)

OIRSA – Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria

ONP – “The Office of National Programs (ONP) is the principal organizational component of ARS which, in accordance with the ARS plan, assesses the full spectrum of scientific needs of the Agency, the resources available for reassignment, and program areas which lack resources or which should be terminated. The ONP develops, for the Administrator, options and recommendations for resource allocations and the Budget Division develops those selected into Departmental budget proposals. The ONP adjusts the ARS Six-Year Implementation Plan based on Executive, Congressional, and Agency priorities. The ONP selects research programs to be implemented and recommends allocations of Agency resources accordingly. This includes distribution of base funds, lapse salary funds, and program increases to research units.”

OSHA – “Occupational Safety and Health Administration — The U.S. Department of Labor agency responsible for administering the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-596; 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.). According to OSHA, farming is the nation’s most hazardous occupation. The intrinsically seasonal nature of many segments of agriculture not only causes the size of this workforce to vary temporally and often geographically via migrant work groups, but usually also has major effects on the nature and intensity of the work itself. OSHA has issued safety standards relating to agricultural operations.” (Womach, 2005)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

OAQ – “Overall allotment quantity (OAQ) — Under the marketing allotment provisions of the sugar program authorized by the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 1403), the OAQ is the amount of domestically-produced sugar that processors of sugar cane and refiners of sugar beets can sell into the U.S. market during a fiscal year. The 2002 farm bill requires USDA to set the OAQ using the following formula: (estimated sugar consumption + reasonable carryover or ending stocks) minus (1,532,000 short tons + carry-in or beginning stocks). What USDA decides is a reasonable carryover stock level is closely watched by the sugar industry because of its influence on prices. Sugar production in excess of the OAQ (sometimes referred to as “blocked stocks”) cannot be marketed.” (Womach, 2005)

OCHREPT – soil classification – a kind of Inceptisol

OM – Organic matter, commonly SOM (Soil Organic Matter)

OPC – Open Pollinated Cultivars, a term used frequently in relation to production of corn hybrids.

ORTHENT – soil classification – a kind of Entisol

ORTHID – soil classification – a kind of Aridisol.

orth. cons. – orthographia conservanda, spelling of a name will be used, even though there is some inconsistency.

ORTHOD – soil classification – a kind of Spodosol.

OTU – “An operational taxonomic unit is an operational definition used to classify groups of closely related individuals. The term was originally introduced by Robert R. Sokal and Peter H. A. Sneath….Nowadays, however, the term “OTU” is generally used in a differentcontext and refers to clusters of (uncultivated or unknown) organisms, grouped by DNA sequence similarity of a specific taxonomic marker gene. In other words, OTUs are pragmatic proxies for microbial “species” at different taxonomic levels.” (Wikipedia, 2019)

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • OCH – Ochnaceae – dicot
  • OCT – Octoknemaceae – dicot
  • OLC – Olacaceae – dicot
  • OLE – Oleaceae – dicot
  • OLI – Oliniaceae – dicot
  • OLN – Oleandraceae – pteridophyte
  • ONA – Onagraceae – dicot
  • ONC – Oncothecaceae – dicot
  • ONO – Onocleaceae – pteridophyte
  • OPH – Ophioglossaceae – pteridophyte
  • OPI – Opiliaceae – dicot
  • ORC – Orchidaceae – monocot
  • ORO – Orobanchaceae – dicot
  • OSM – Osmundaceae – pteridophyte
  • OXL – Oxalidaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

O – element – Oxygen

O3 – Ozone


OOMT/OOMT – Genes and enzymes (O-methyltransferases) involved in DMT production in Chinese roses (Singer, 2108)

Os – Oryza sativa, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc. i.e. OsMYB55


  • O – Botanical Museum, Oslo, Norway
  • OAKL – Oakland Museum of California Herbarium, Oakland, California
  • OBI – Robert F. Hoover Herbarium, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California
  • OBPF – Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park Herbarium, Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park, Oyster Bay, New York
  • OC – Oberlin College Herbarium, Oberlin, Ohio
  • OCNF – Ochoco National Forest Herbarium, Prineville, Oregon
  • ODU – Old Dominion University Herbarium, Norfolk, Virginia
  • OHN – Biological Museum, Oskarshamn, Sweden
  • OKL – Robert Bebb Herbarium University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • OKLA – Oklahoma State University Herbarium, Stillwater, Oklahoma
  • OLV – Olivet College Herbarium, Olivet, Michigan
  • OMC – Mills College Herbarium, Oakland, California
  • ORU – Oral Roberts University Herbarium, Tulsa, Oklahoma
  • OS – Ohio State University Herbarium, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
  • OSA – Osaka Museum of Natural History, Osaka, Japan
  • OSC – Oregon State University Herbarium, Corvallis, Oregon
  • OSMC – St. Martin’s College Herbarium, Lacey, Washington
  • OSUF – Oregon State University Herbarium, Corvallis, Oregon
  • OSW – Herbarium SUNY Oswego, Oswego, New York
  • OUA – University of Ouagadougou Burkina Faso; Ouagadougou
  • OULU – University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
  • OWU – Jason Swallen Herbarium, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio
  • OXF – Fielding-Druce Herbarium, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UK


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications…

PA – “PlantAmnesty, established in 1987, is a 1000-member mock-militant non profit organization whose mission is to end the senseless torture and mutilation of trees and shrubs caused by malpruning.¶We have a sense of humor and a mission. We specialize in using the media to alert the public to crimes against nature being committed in their own back yards, specifically tree topping and the nuisance shearing of shrubs. Once we have the public’s attention, we supply all the solutions: a referral service of skilled gardeners and arborists, classes and workshops, and YouTube videos and how-to literature on selective pruning in English and in Spanish. And we host volunteer pruning events for needy and deserving trees and gardens, including the Arbor Day Tree Prune and Volunteer Yard Renovations.For our work on pruning reform we have won several awards including three Gold Leaf Awards from the International Society of Arboriculture, the Arbor Day Foundation’s Education Award, and Washington State’s Urban Forest Stewardship Award.” (Assigned acronym, PlantAmnesty does not use PA)

PAGS – The Pelargonium and Geranium Society: “Formed in 2009, Membership of the Society is open to amateur and professional gardeners, specialist trade growers, nurserymen, and anyone with an interest in Pelargoniums and Geraniums. Members receive four times a year a copy of the Society Magazine ‘Pelargonium & Geranium News’. (see also The Geraniaceae Group).

PC – “Plant Canada aims to organize and sponsor regular, effective scientific meetings and workshops under a national umbrella for plant science and related disciplines in Canada; to operate and maintain a strong communication network among member societies and their individual members; and to be a strong and effective force for public education and advocacy in plant and related sciences.” (from the GPC website)”

PCA – “The Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA) is a consortium of ten federal government Member agencies and 285 non-federal Cooperators representing various disciplines within the conservation field (including biologists, botanists, habitat preservationists, horticulturists, resources management consultants, soil scientists, special interest clubs, non-profit organizations, concerned citizens, nature lovers, and gardeners). The PCA aims to work collectively to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration.” (See BGCI)

PDP – “Pesticide Data Program (PDP) — A program initiated in 1991 by the Agricultural Marketing Service to collect pesticide residue data on selected food commodities, primarily fruits and vegetables. PDP data are used by the EPA to support its dietary risk assessment process and pesticide registration process, by the Food and Drug Administration to refine sampling for enforcement of tolerances; by the Foreign Agricultural Service, to support export of U.S. commodities in a competitive global market; by the Economic Research Service to evaluate pesticide alternatives; and by the public sector to address food safety issues.” (Womach, 2005)

PDP – “Potato Diversion Program — A USDA program under which farmers are paid to divert potatoes to charitable institutions, livestock feed, ethanol production, and/or render them nonmarketable and destroyed. The most recent program was for 2000 crop fresh russet potatoes with expenditures limited to $10.25 million. There also was a 1997 program to divert fresh Irish round white and russet potatoes tocharitable institutions or for use as livestock feed. The program is administered by the Agricultural Marketing Service and implemented in the field by the Farm Service Agency. The objective of PDP is to reduce supplies and raise farm prices.” (Womach, 2005)

PEB – The Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology (PEB) is a cutting edge research center focused on better understanding the way in which plants interconvert forms of chemical energy in response to environmental change.” (GPC website)

PFAF – “Plants For A Future (PFAF) is a charitable company, originally set up to support the work of Ken and Addy Fern on their experimental site in Cornwall, where they carried out research and provided information on edible and otherwise useful plants suitable for growing outdoors in a temperate climate. Over time they planted 1500 species of edible plants on ‘The Field’ in Cornwall, which was their base since 1989. Ken also compiled a database of around 7000 species of plants.Before 2005, PFAF-Cornwall was supported by a group of vegan activists and the group raised money to purchase a second site in North Devon with the aim of establishing an ecovillage. Both PFAF sites: Cornwall and North Devon, failed to gain planning permission for building or living on the sites, and there was a crisis in 2005 which almost brought PFAF to an end. At that point the PFAF-North Devon site was sold and the PFAF charity separated from PFAF-Cornwall and continued to make the PFAF database available, and develop it further as a freely available information resource. The PFAF charity (based in Devon) has no operational links with PFAF-Cornwall.”PGR – Plant Gene Registry – a self-policing free for all See GenBank,NIH: “GenBank ® is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences (Nucleic Acids Research, 2013 Jan;41(D1):D36-42). GenBank is part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, which comprises the DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ), the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and GenBank at NCBI. These threeorganizations exchange data on a daily basis… The GenBank database is designed to provide and encourage access within the scientific community to the most up-to-date and comprehensive DNA sequence information. Therefore, NCBI places no restrictions on the use or distribution of the GenBank data. However, some submitters may claim patent, copyright, or other intellectual property rights in all or a portion of the data they have submitted. NCBI is not in a position to assess the validity of such claims, and therefore cannot provide comment or unrestricted permission concerning the use, copying, or distribution of the information contained in GenBank.”

PIFON – “The Pacific Island Farmers Organisation Network (PIFON) serves as an umbrella organisation for national farmer organizations in the Pacific island region. It is based in Nadi, Fiji and has membership of organisations from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, as well as a Melanesian regional organisation. Although operating informally since 2009, its first formal foundation meeting was held in April 2013 in Nadi, when 13 organisations were represented and PIFON became operational as a legal entity in its own right. PIFON was established to provide support to the small national farmer organisations in the region through coordinating capacity building, sharing success stories, and supporting regional exchanges of expertise, thus potentially enabling smallholder farmers to play an important role in agricultural value chains. The founder members noted that while farmer organisations had in the past depended on a high level of donor support, this support had often been sporadic.Moreover, because of their limited resources the organisations had been unable to clearly articulate their needs. It was therefore considered important to develop business activities to promote farmer organisation sustainability, while not detracting from their core values and objectives.” (Wikipedia, 2018)

PINE – Plant Identifier New England

PNAS – “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – one of the world’s most-cited and comprehensive multidisciplinary scientific journals, publishing more than 3,800 research papers annually. The journal’s content spans the biological, physical, and social sciences and is global in scope.”

PNPS – “The Pennsylvania Native Plant Society had a beginning in 1979, when, through initiatives of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, and the Pennsylvania Legislature, a movement was begun to recognize the rare and endangered plants of Pennsylvania and to set up organized efforts to produce a list of such plants and implement legislation for their study and protection. The Pennsylvania Native Plants Society advocates conservation of native plants and their habitats and promotes the increased use of native plants in the landscape.”

PPA – “The Plant Protection Act (PPA) (part of Pub.L. 106–224) is a US statute relating to plant pests and noxious weeds introduced in 2000.It is currently codified at 7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq. It consolidates related responsibilities that were previously spread over various legislative statutes, including the Plant Quarantine Act, the Federal Plant Pest Act and the Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974.” (quoted from Wikipedia, 2018)

PPPO – Pacific Plant Protection Organization

PPS – Plant Protection Science: “An international peer-reviewed journal published under the auspices of the Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences and financed by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. Founded 1921”

PRM – “Pest resistance management (PRM) plans — To protect the continued use of biopesticides, the EPA is requiring companies developing transgenic crops (see Genetic engineering) to submit and implement pest resistance management (PRM) plans as a requirement of product registration. If they are exposed to a toxin excessively, mostinsect populations can develop resistance, making pest control products less effective. With new biopesticide technologies comes the concern that pests will rapidly develop resistance to natural insecticides, because plant pesticides tend to produce the pesticidal active ingredient throughout a growing season, increasing the selection pressure upon both the target pests and any other susceptible insects feeding on the transformed crop. A resistance management plan is intended to sustain the useful life of transgenic technology and well as the utility of the toxin for organic farmers.” (Womach, 2005)

PROLINNOVA – Promoting Local Innovation: “VISION: A world where women and men farmers play decisive roles in agricultural research and development for sustainable livelihoods. Prolinnova is an NGO-initiated international multi-stakeholder platform to promote local innovation processes in ecologically oriented agriculture and NRM. It focuses on recognising the dynamics of indigenous knowledge (IK) and enhancing capacities of farmers (including pastoralists, fishers and forest dwellers) to adjust to change – to develop their own site-appropriate systems and institutions of resource management so as to gain food security, sustain their livelihoods and safeguard the environment. The essence of sustainability lies in the capacity to adapt.”

PSA- The Plumeria Society of America: “furthering society’s knowledge of plumeria since 1979”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

PCOFGS – “Perry Como ordered fresh green salad”, which is to say: Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

PLFA – “Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis – PLFA analysis is a widely-used technique for estimation of the total biomass and to observe broad changes in the soil microbiota composition. Multiple different Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) methods and instrument types have been used to determine PLFA profiles. However, most of this analysis is performed manually, time consuming and potentially error-prone.” http://midi-inc.com/pages/plfa.html

prim. – primo, at the beginning of a time period (early in the year)

Prodr. (DC.) The standard abbreviation for de Candolle’s Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis,

PRS® – “Plant Root Simulator (PRS®) probes are ion exchange resin membranes held in plastic supports that are easily inserted into soil to measure ion supply in situ with minimal disturbance.“ https:// www.westernag.ca/innovations/technology/basics

PSAMMENT – soil classification – A kind of entisol

PZ – the Peripheral Zone surrounding a point meristem, the zone in which organogenesis occurs.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • PAE – Paeoniaceae – dicot
  • PAL – Palmae – monocot PAP – Papaveraceae – dicot
  • PAR – Parnassiaceae – dicot
  • PAS – Passifloraceae – dicot
  • PAU** – Paulowniaceae – dicot
  • PCL – Phyllocladaceae – gymnosperm
  • PCP – Paracryphiaceae – dicot
  • PCR – Picrodendraceae – dicot
  • PDA – Pandaceae – dicot
  • PDC – Podocarpaceae – gymnosperm
  • PDP – Podophyllaceae – dicot
  • PDS – Podostemaceae – dicot
  • PED – Pedaliaceae – dicot
  • PEG – Peganaceae – dicot
  • PEL – Pellicieraceae – dicot
  • PEP – Peperomiaceae – dicot
  • PER – Peraceae – dicot
  • PGL – Polygalaceae – dicot
  • PGP – Plagiopteraceae – dicot
  • PGY – Plagiogyriaceae – pteridophyte
  • PHC – Pentaphylacaceae – dicot
  • PHD – Philadelphaceae – dicot
  • PHL – Philydraceae – monocot
  • PHN – Phyllonomaceae – dicot
  • PHO – Phormiaceae – monocot
  • PHR – Phrymaceae – dicot
  • PHT – Phytolaccaceae – dicot
  • PHY** – Physenaceae – dicot
  • PIC** – Picramniaceae – dicot
  • PIN – Pinaceae – gymnosperm
  • PIP – Piperaceae – dicot
  • PIS – Pistaciaceae – dicot
  • PIT – Pittosporaceae – dicot
  • PLB – Plumbaginaceae – dicot
  • PLG – Polygonaceae – dicot
  • PLM – Polemoniaceae – dicot
  • PLN – Phellinaceae – dicot
  • PLO – Plocospermataceae – dicot
  • PLP – Polypodiaceae – pteridophyte
  • PLS – Philesiaceae – monocot
  • PLS** – Polyosmaceae – dicot
  • PLT – Platanaceae – dicot
  • PNA – Penaeaceae – dicot
  • PND – Pandanaceae – dicot
  • PNT – Pentadiplandraceae – dicot
  • POA – Poaceae – monocot
  • POD – Podoaceae – dicot
  • PON – Pontederiaceae – monocot
  • POP – Populaceae – dicot
  • POR – Portulacaceae – dicot
  • POS – Posidoniaceae – monocot
  • POT – Potamogetonaceae – monocot
  • PPH – Pteridophyllaceae – dicot
  • PPL – Papilionaceae – dicot
  • PRD – Peridiscaceae – dicot
  • PRI** – Prioniaceae – monocot
  • PRK – Parkeriaceae – pteridophyte
  • PRM – Primulaceae – dicot
  • PRP – Periplocaceae – dicot
  • PRT – Proteaceae – dicot
  • PSL – Psilotaceae – pteridophyte
  • PSV – Petrosaviaceae – monocot
  • PSX – Psiloxylaceae – dicot
  • PTG – Plantaginaceae – dicot
  • PTH – Penthoraceae – dicot
  • PTL – Potaliaceae – dicot
  • PTM – Petermanniaceae – monocot
  • PTP – Pentaphragmataceae – dicot
  • PTR – Pteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • PTS – Pterostemonaceae – dicot
  • PTT** – Pottingeriaceae – dicot
  • PTX – Ptaeroxylaceae – dicot
  • PTZ – Platyzomataceae – pteridophyte
  • PUN – Punicaceae – dicot
  • PUT** – Putranjivaceae – dicot
  • PYR – Pyrolaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

P – element – Phosphorous

P – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Proline


PAR – “Photosynthetically active radiation designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis.” (Wikipedia, 2018)Pc – Petroselinum crispum, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc., i.e. PcMYB1PC – – Plastocyanin

PCD – process – Programmed Cell Death, Apoptosis

PD – Plasmodesmata

PENNYWISE (PNY) – PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH areHomeodomain genes and their proteins, which are involved in regulation of meristematic cell development. (Shang Wu, 2012,eScholarship, UC Riverside Theses and Dissertations) Permalink: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2jb086jg




pH – “An expression of the intensity of the basic or acidic condition of a liquid or of soil; the logarithmic scale ranges from 0 to 14, where 0 is the most acid, 7 is neutral, and above 7 is alkaline. Natural waters usually have a pH between 6.5 and 8.5. Plants have differing tolerances for acidity and alkalinity.” (Womach, 2005)

Ph – Petunia hybrida, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc.i.e. PhMYB3

Phe – abbreviation for the amino acid Phenylalanine


PG – Plastoquinone

PLENA – gene





PPV – Plum Pox Virus

PRC – – Polycomb Repressor Complex

Pro – abbreviation for the amino acid Proline



PWA – Pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, agglutinin, a lectin



  • P, PC – Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
  • PAC – Pennsylvania State University Herbarium, University Park, Pennsylvania
  • PACA – Instituto Anchietano de Pesquisas/UNISINOS “; São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
  • PAD – Università degli Studi di Padova, Padua, Italy
  • PAL – Herbarium Mediterraneum Panormitanum, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • PAM – Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Herbarium, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
  • PAP – Musée de Tahiti et des Îles, Punaauia, Tahiti, French Polynesia; ”
  • PASA – Pasadena City College Herbarium, Pasadena, California
  • PASM – Palomar College Herbarium, San Marcos, California
  • PAV – Università di Pavia, Pavia, ItalyPE – Chinese National Herbarium, (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Xiangshan, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • PERTH – Western Australian Herbarium, Western Australia, Australia
  • PESA – Centro Ricerche Floristiche Marche, Pesaro, Italy
  • PFC – Pfeiffer University Herbarium, Misenheimer, North Carolina
  • PFRS – Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Forest Disease Herbarium, Berkeley, California
  • PGM – Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History Herbarium, Pacific Grove, California
  • PH – Academy of Natural Sciences Herbarium Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • PI – Università i Pisa, Pisa, Italy
  • PIHG – Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Herbarium, Gainesville, Florida
  • PLAT – State University of New York, College at Plattsburgh Herbarium, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, New York
  • PM – Peabody Essex Museum Herbarium, Salem, Massachusetts
  • PMA – University of Panama, Panama City, Panama
  • PMEA – Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton, Alberta
  • PMS – Pacific Marine Station Herbarium, Dillon Beach, California
  • PNH – Philippine National Herbarium, Manila, Philippines
  • PO – Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • POFS – Forest Service Herbarium, USDA, Portland, Oregon
  • POLL – Palatine Museum of Natural History (Pfalzmuseum für Naturkunde), Bad, Dürkheim, Germany
  • POM – Pomona College Herbarium, Claremont, California
  • PORE – Point Reyes National Seashore Herbarium, Point Reyes Station California
  • PORUN – Università degli Studi di Napoli, Portici, Napoli, Italy
  • PPIU – M. Utemisov Western Kazakhstanian State University, Uralsk, Kazakhstan
  • PRC – Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • PRE – South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa
  • PREM – National Mycological Herbarium, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa
  • PRI – College of Eastern Utah Herbarium, Price, Utah
  • PRU – H.G.W.J. Schweickerdt Herbarium, University of Pretoria; Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa
  • PSP – Parasitic Seed Plants Herbarium, Burlington, West Virginia
  • PTBG National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Kauai, Hawaii
  • PTIS – Potato Introduction Station Herbarium, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin
  • PUL – Kriebel Herbarium, Purdue University West Lafayette Indiana
  • PUR – Arthur Herbarium, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
  • PVNH – Herbarium of Vanuatu, Port-Vila, Vanuatu


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, Publications, & Programs….Description….

q.v. – quod vide (“which see”), indicating something to examine for comparison.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • QII – Quiinaceae – dicot
  • QLJ** – Quillajaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

Q – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Glutamine

QACQTL-Mapping – Quantitative trail locus mapping


  • QCA – Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador
  • QCNE – Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador
  • QK – Fowler Herbarium, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • QUE – Herbier du Québec, Quebec, Quebec, Canaca


Associations, Authorties, Organizations, Programs, & Publications…

RASE – “The Royal Agricultural Society of England is an independent charity dedicated to the application of science and technology to optimise agriculture and food resources to ensure a secure global future.” It’s Mission; “To be the independent voice for the interpretation and application of science and best practice that seeks to optimise agriculture and food resources to ensure a secure global future.”

RGN – “The Rain Garden Network was started in 2003 with the intention of bringing simple, proven and inexpensive solutions for local storm water issues to individual homeowners, groups, organizations, and municipalities. The company offers hands-on assistance, information and education services and program development in an effort to help landowners do what they can on their property to protect the water quality of our lakes, rivers, and streams from pollution and reduce the damage done by storm water runoff.Since the company was started we have spoken to thousands of interested people about rain gardens, why they are important and how easy it is to install and grow a rain garden in their yard.”

RHS – “The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804, and our core objective is to be the world’s leading gardening charity by inspiring passion and excellence in the science, art and practice of horticulture.” From Wikipedia, 2018: The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) was founded in 1804 in London, England, as the Horticultural Society of London, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861.[2][1] The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity[who?] and claims to be “the world’s largest gardening charity”.[1] The RHS quotes its charitable purpose as “The encouragement and improvement of the science, art and practice of horticulture in all its branches”.RIFA – Red Internacional de Forestería Análoga (see IAFN for English description)

RIT Visa – “The Research and Innovation Talent Visa enables individuals with exceptional talent and exceptional promise in the fields of science, medicine, engineering, social science and humanities to live and work in the UK.” (from the website of the Royal Society)

RIWPS – “The Rhode Island Wild Plant Society is a nonprofit conservation organization dedicated to the preservation and protection of Rhode Island’s native plants and their habitats. Our Native Plants: We provide opportunities to study and enjoy them; We encourage and offer guidance in their cultivation and use.: We educate the public on their ecological and aesthetic values; We support land preservation and practices fostering their natural communities.”

RNQP – (European) Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest: “RNQPs are defined in two International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM 16: Regulated non-quarantine pests: concept and application and ISPM 21: Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests). More specifically article 36 of EU Regulation 2016/2031 defines RNQPs as pests with a clear taxonomic identity, present in the European Union territory, transmitted mainly through specific plants for planting, whose presence has an unacceptable economic impact as regards the intended use, and where feasible and effective measures are available. Article 37 of EU Regulation 2016/2031 regulates RNQPs for professional operators.” from the EPPO website.

RPA – “Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA) — P.L. 93- 378 directs the Forest Service to prepare and update an assessment every 10 years: to inventory and monitor the status and trends of all forest lands and range lands; to prepare a long- range plan every 5 years to guide Forest Service policies; and, to prepare interdisciplinary forest plans for units of the National Forest System. Since FY1999, provisions in the annual Interior appropriations acts have prevented completion of the 2000 Resource Planning Act (RPA) assessment.” (Womach, 2005)

RWG – “The Restoration Working Group (RWG) facilitates the implementation of numerous successful restoration projects throughout the country.” See BGCIDescription, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….RR/rr – Roundup Ready, referencing seed produced through the Monsanto program to create genetically-altered crops resistant to the herbicide glyphosate.

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

R – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Arginine R-gene

RAD – RADIALIS gene. “RAD is a protein with a single MYB transcription factor repeat that is thought to compete with the two- repeat MYB protein encoded by the DIVARICATA (DIV)” (see The Genus Antirrhinum (Snapdragon) A Flowering Plant Model for Evolution and Development, Andrew Hudson, Joanna Critchley, and Yvette Erasmus – http://www.cshprotocols.org/emo)


RFLP – restriction fragment length polymorphism

RIN – gene

RISCRLK RNAROI – Reactive Oxygen Intermediate

RR – Round-up Ready (Ex: “Roundup Ready soybeans — Genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant soybeans. Roundup is the trade name for glyphosate, a broad-spectrum herbicide. Farmers planting RR soybeans pay more for the seed, and must agree to use certain herbicide application practices as part of a pesticide resistance management plan. In addition, under patent law farmers may not save a portion of their harvest of RR soybeans to use for planting the next year’s crop. The benefits of herbicide-tolerant crops include potential savings in both chemical and labor costs.” Womach, 2005)

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:RAF – Rafflesiaceae – dicot

RAN – Ranunculaceae – dicot

RHB – Rhabdodendraceae – dicot

RHD – Rhodoleiaceae – dicot

RHM – Rhamnaceae – dicot

RHP – Rhoipteleaceae – dicot

RHZ – Rhizophoraceae – dicot

RIP** – Ripogonaceae – monocot

RNC** – Rhynchocalycaceae – dicot

ROS – Rosaceae – dicot

ROU** – Rousseaceae – dicot

RPG* – Rhipogonaceae – monocot

RPL – Rhopalocarpaceae – dicot

RPT – Rapateaceae – monocot

RRD – Roridulaceae – dicot

RSD – Resedaceae – dicot

RST – Restionaceae – monocot

RTZ – Retziaceae – dicot

RUB – Rubiaceae – dicot

RUP – Ruppiaceae – monocot

RUS – Ruscaceae – monocot

RUT – Rutaceae – dicot


  • R – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • RAB – Institut Scientifique, Rabat-Agdal, Morocco
  • RB – Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • REG – University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
  • REN – Campus scientifique de Beaulieu and Campus Villejean Rennes, France
  • RESC – Shasta College Herbarium, Redding, California
  • RICK – Idaho Herbarium, Brigham Young University, Rexburg, Idaho
  • RIG – University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
  • RM – Rocky Mountain Herbarium, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming
  • RMWC – Randolph-Macon Woman’s College Herbarium, Lynchburg, Virginia
  • RNG – University of Reading, Reading, England,UK
  • RO – Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
  • ROCH Rochester Academy of Science Herbarium Rochester New York
  • ROPA – Sonoma State University Herbarium, Rohnert Park, California
  • ROV – Museo Civico di Rovereto, Rovereto, Trentino, Italy
  • RPM- Reading Public Museum Herbarium, Reading, Pennsylvania
  • RSA – Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Herbarium, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, California
  • RUHV – Radford University Herbarium, Radford, Virginia
  • RUT – Douglass College Herbarium, Rutgers University, New Brunswick ,New Jersey
  • RUTPP – Rutgers Mycological Collection, New Brunswick, New Jersey
  • RV, RWBG – South Federal University (Южный Федеральный университет), Rostov-on-Don, Russia;
  • RWPM – Roger Williams Park Herbarium, Providence, Rhode Island


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications…

SABE – “The 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition (SABE) was the first trip by American botanists to China since the Chinese Revolution, signaling renewed cooperation among scientists in both countries. The Arnold Arboretum – one of five American institutions on the expedition – was represented by taxonomist Stephen A. Spongberg. The other American institutions represented were the University of California-Berkeley, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, the United States National Arboretum, and the New York Botanical Garden. The Americans joined their Chinese colleagues from the Institute of Botany, Beijing; the Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing; the Wuhan Institute of Botany; and the Kunming Institute of Botany.” (from the Plant Exploration section of the Arnold Arboretum website, which-see for more detail, 2018)

SAES – “State agricultural experiment stations (SAES) — The Hatch Act of 1887 authorized the establishment of an agricultural experiment station, to be affiliated with the land grant college of agriculture, in each state (7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.). Research done at these stations underpins the curriculum of the colleges, as well as the programs of the Cooperative Extension System.” (Womach, 2005)

SAF – “The mission of the Society of American Foresters is to advance sustainable management of forest resources through science, education, and technology; to enhance the competency of its members; to establish professional excellence; and to use our knowledge, skills, and conservation ethic to ensure the continued health, integrity, and use of forests to benefit society in perpetuity.”

SAF – “The Society of American Florists has been representing and supporting the floral industry since 1884. Our membership base, which exceeds 6, 000, is comprised of participants from all comers of the industry. Our members are retail florists, flower growers, floral wholesalers and suppliers, importers, event-only florists, floral educators and students. We offer each of our membership segments unique tools and opportunities that empower them to grow their businesses.”

SAFV – “The Argentine Society of Plant Physiology (Spanish: Sociedad Argentina de Fisiología Vegetal; SAFV) represents plant scientists in Argentina.” (GPC)

SAPS – “Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS) creates opportunities for teachers and students to find out more about plants and to become more interested in plant science. ¶We believe young people should understand the importance of plants in the world and be aware of the relevance of plant science to modern life. Plants not only create the atmosphere we need to breathe, but form the basis of the food we eat, the fuel we use to live and work, the clothes we wear, and many of the medicines we use. They are also fascinating organisms that have developed some beautiful and canny ways to survive in the world. Plant scientists are working at the very forefront of biology today, investigating how to create sustainable food and fuel supplies for the global population, protect biodiversity for future generations, and deepen knowledge of how living organisms have evolved and develop.For today’s research to have impact, we need to ensure that we inspire the next generation of plant scientists to continue this work and develop new ideas. ¶We know that good teachers can bring plant science alive and we want to help them. We are doing this by working with curriculum developers, producing useful teaching resources, enabling teachers to share ideas through our website, and encouraging plant scientists to get involved in education and outreach. ¶Science and Plants for Schools has been core-funded by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation since it began in 1990 and our reputation has been built bythe many talented and committed people who have been involved with our projects since then. We continue to encourage those with interest in our work to suggest projects and join us in partnerships. We work closely with other organisations in the biology community, we consult with teachers to make sure our work is what they need, and we talk to scientists to ensure we know what is going on in plant science today.”

SARA – Canada: “The purposes of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) are to prevent wildlife species in Canada from disappearing, to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated (no longer exist in the wild in Canada), endangered, or threatened as a result of human activity, and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened. A series of measures applicable across Canada provides the means to accomplish these goals. Some of these measures establish how governments, organizations, and individuals in Canada work together, while others implement a species assessment process to ensure the protection and recovery of species. Some measures provide for sanctions for offenses under SARA.”

SCNPS – “The South Carolina Native Plant Society was founded in March of 1996 by a diverse group of folks interested in promoting the awareness and education of native plant species and their importance in the South Carolina landscape and history.”

SCPV – “The Canadian Society of Plant Biologists (CSPB) (French: Societé Canadienne de Biologie Végétale; SCBV) provides a forum for plant scientists in Canada to meet and discuss not only the latest scientific developments in the field, but also the political, social and financial issues that we all face as we develop our research and/or teaching careers.” (GPC website)

SCS – “Soil Conservation Service (SCS) — Replaced by a new USDA agency, the Natural Resources Conservation Service after USDA reorganization in 1994. Responsibilities include carrying out technical assistance programs in cooperation with soil conservation districts toimprove and conserve soil and water resources, and operating related programs such as the national soil survey and the natural resources inventory.” (Womach, 2005)

SEB – “The Society for Economic Botany (SEB) is about people exploring the uses of, and our relationship with plants, cultures and our environment—plants and humane affairs. You might well call our research and educational efforts, the science of survival.We were established in 1959 and our mission is to foster and encourage scientific research, education, and related activities on the past, present, and future uses of plants, and the relationship between plants and people, and to make the results of such research available to the scientific community and the general public through meetings and publications.” SEB includes: Society for Ethnobotanists: “Ethnobotany has attracted worldwide attraction during the last six decades and has established the close linkages between many subjects like: botany, medicinal plants, pharmacology, agriculture and the drug research. For the promotion of multifarious potentiality and prospects of ethnobotany an international scientific body, The Society of Ethnobotanists was formed during 1980 under the president ship of Dr. S.K. Jain, the then Director, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.”

SEB – Society for Experimental Biology. “‘We encourage the cross- fertilisation of ideas and disciplines. We support new ideas, innovation and bold leaps in thinking. We ensure that experimentation is at the heart of biology.’ The Plant Section promotes the development and communication of research in plant biology. Our journals encourage rapid publication of high-quality research and every year the SEB organises international conferences covering diverse areas of modern plant science. Interest Groups: An interest group is simply a theme to represent the interests of SEB members. The Plant Section has a number of special interest groups covering different areas of plant biology that you are welcome to join. But these boundaries are notfixed scientifically and the groups share scientific events and interests.” The Plant Section publishes The Plant Journal.

SEFV – “The Spanish Society of Plant Physiology (Spanish: Sociedad Española de Fisiología Vegetal; SEFV) is a scientific society that brings together all those professionals who try to answer the question of how plant organisms work together, and how the organs, tissues, cells, organelles, genes, molecules of plant origin, both work isolated and in interaction with their natural environment. The SEFV was established as a Scientific Society in 1974. It currently has approximately 600 members spread across the different groups available tosociety.” (GPC website)

SER – “Founded in 1987, the Society for Ecological Restoration is a global community of restoration professionals that includes researchers, practitioners, decision-makers, and community leaders from Africa, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and the Americas. SER members are actively engaged in the ecologically sensitive repair and recovery of degraded ecosystems utilizing a broad array of experiences, knowledge sets, and cultural perspectives.”SHRB – Shasta Horticultural Resource Bulletin: “A resource for Northern California Gardeners.”

SIBA – Sistema de Información Botánica Andina (See ABIS)
SNA – “As a regional association, Southern Nursery Association works to advance the horticulture industry in the Southeast by supporting and enhancing educational, commercial and research opportunities, and by gathering, analyzing and disseminating information to our members, the state associations within our region, and the industry. If you are not a member, we invite you to join the Southern Nursery Association today!”

SOAP – “Sunflower Oil Assistance Program — Along with the Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program (COAP), SOAP was one of twoprograms that awarded bonuses to exporters of U.S. vegetable oil to assist with exports to targeted markets. SOAP was authorized beginning in FY1988 with funds made available under Section 32 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act Amendment of 1935 (P.L. 74-320) The provision in the Disaster Assistance Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-387), which had authorized SOAP, expired at the end of FY1995 and was not extended in the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127). However, the USDA appropriations act for FY 1996 (P.L.104-37 )provided authority to operate th eprogram in FY 1996. Export subsidies for sunflower oil can be financed under the Export Enhancement Program(EEP).” (Womach, 2005)

SoE – “The Society of Ethnobiology (SoE) is a nonprofit professional organization established in 1977 to promote and perpetuate the interdisciplinary study of the relationships of plants and animals with human cultures worldwide, including past and present relationships between peoples and the environment. The Society integrates scientific research with education and with public priorities at regional, national, and international levels.”

SPPS – “The mission of Societas Physiologiae Plantarum Scandinavicais is to promote plant science in the Nordic countries. SPPS was founded in 1947. ,Celebrating that we turn 70 we ask for creative ideas on how plant science could best be promoted. The task is to convince the public and decision-makers that what we do is not only fun but also important.”

SPRB – (India) “The primary objective of the Society of Plant Reproductive Biologists is to provide a forum to various workers in the field of plant reproductive biology to express their views in the annual conferences organized and The International Journal of Plant Reproductive biologists published by the society. The society aims at the following: 1. To promote research in the field of plant reproductive biology; 2. To encourage the workers in the field of plant reproductive biology of all the groups of plants to express their views in theconferences organized by the society ; 3. To encourage the researchers in the field of plant reproductive biology of all the groups of plants to publish their work in the peer reviewed journal of the society published twice a year (IJPRB – the International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology).”

SPS – “Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and agreements — Measures to protect humans, animals, and plants from diseases, pests, or contaminants. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures is one of the final documents approved at the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of the Multilateral Trade Negotiations. It applies to all sanitary (relating to animals) and phytosanitary (relating to plants) (SPS) measures that may have a direct or indirect impact on international trade. The SPS agreement includes a series of understandings (trade disciplines) on how SPS measures will be established and used by countries when they establish, revise, or apply their domestic laws and regulations.Countries agree to base their SPS standards on science, and as guidance for their actions, the agreement encourages countries to use standards set by international standard setting organizations. The SPS agreement seeks to ensure that SPS measures will not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate against trade of certain other members nor be used to disguise trade restrictions. In this SPS agreement, countries maintain the sovereign right to provide the level of health protection they deem appropriate, but agree that this right will not be misused for protectionist purposes nor result in unnecessary trade barriers. A rule of equivalency rather than equality applies to the use of SPS measures.” (Womach, 2005)

SSE – “Seed Savers Exchange is a tax-exempt 501(c)3 nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of heirloomseeds.” (Assigned Acronym, not used by Seed Savers Exchange)

SSSA – “The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), is the largest soil- specific society in the United States.[1] It was formed in 1936 from themerger of the Soils Section of the American Society of Agronomy and the American Soil Survey Association. The Soils Section of ASA became the official Americas section of the International Union of Soil Sciences in 1934, a notable role which SSSA continues to fulfill.” (Wikipedia)

SSSAJ – The Soil Science Society of America Journal.

STRI – Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. A Panama-based collaborative tropical research program, with research centered on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

SUA – “The Sweetener Users Association (SUA) represents American food and beverage manufacturers who use sugar to make the productsU.S. consumers know and love – from sweet treats to everyday staples like bread, pasta sauce, yogurt and peanut butter. SUA members employ hundreds of thousands of Americans across the United States– from bakers and confectioners to food scientists and factory workers. SUA advocates for legislative and regulatory reforms that will makeU.S. sugar policy more market-oriented, both domestically and internationally, so that consumers aren’t forced to pay high prices that result from government subsidies. SUA believes in less government intrusion into the marketplace and in sugar and trade policies that protect American workers, manufacturers and consumers.”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

S. ampl., S. lat., S. str. – typically used in taxonomic discussion, these abbreviate sensu amplo, sensu lato, and sensu stricto – which signify “in the most encompassing sense”, ‘in the broadest sense’, and ‘in the strictest sense’.

s. ann. – sine anno, year unknown

s. coll. – sine collectore, collector unknown SAV – Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

Segm., segms. – Abbreviation of Segment, used in descriptions referencing divisions or segments to a plant organ.

SEM – Scanning Electron Microscope [See TimeLine, 1927]

SLAM – Sanitation, Loading, Aeration, and Monitoring – Four cautions for storage of grains in elevators

SOM – Soil Organic Matter

Sp., spp. – Species, singular and plural Ssp., sspp – Subspecies, singular and plural

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

S – element – Sulphur

S – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Serine

S-alleles, S-gene, S-genotype, S-glycoprotein, S-loci S-ribonuclease – S- phase

Sa – for Sinapsis alba, used as prefix for genes, i.e. SaMADSA.

SA – hormone – Salicylic Acid

SAR – Systematic Acquired Resistance SBA – Soybean (Glycine max) agglutinin

Sc – Saccharum officinarum, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc., i.e. ScMYBAS1


SEPALLATA – gene –

Ser – abbreviation for the amino acid Serine SHAGGY –

Si – element – Silicon




SNA – Sambucus nigra agglutinin – a lectin

SOC1/SOC1 – SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS – a gene and protein involved in flowering, through impacting activity of the LEAFY gene. (Singer, 2018) See also: http://www.plant-biology.com/Arabidopsis-flowering-time-gene-SOC1.php





sugary – genetic


SULFUREA (SULF) – a gene that controls aurone pigmentation (see The Genus Antirrhinum (Snapdragon) A Flowering Plant Model for Evolution and Development, Andrew Hudson, Joanna Critchley, and Yvette Erasmus – http://www.cshprotocols.org/emo)


SWEET – the SWEET9 protein is involved in production of nectars (Singer, 2018)

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • SAB – Sabiaceae – dicot
  • SAB – Sambucaceae – dicot
  • SAC* – Saccifoliaceae – dicot
  • SAL – Salicaceae – dicot
  • SAM – Samydaceae – dicot
  • SAN – Santalaceae – dicot
  • SAP – Sapindaceae – dicot
  • SAR – Sarraceniaceae – dicot
  • SAR – Sarcobataceae – dicot**
  • SAX – Saxifragaceae – dicot
  • SCH – Schlegeliaceae – dicot**
  • SCR – Scrophulariaceae – dicot
  • SCS – Schisandraceae – dicot
  • SCT – Scytopetalaceae – dicot
  • SCZ – Schizaeaceae – pteridophyte
  • SEL – Selaginellaceae – pteridophyte
  • SEP – Streptochaetaceae – monocot
  • SET – Setchellanthaceae – dicot**
  • SGL – Spigeliaceae – dicot
  • SGN – Stilaginaceae – dicot
  • SLB – Stylobasiaceae – dicot
  • SLC – Stylocerataceae – dicot
  • SLD – Sladeniaceae – dicot
  • SLG – Selaginaceae – dicot
  • SLV – Salvadoraceae – dicot
  • SML – Smilacaceae – monocot
  • SMM – Simmondsiaceae – dicot
  • SMR – Simaroubaceae – dicot
  • SNC – Saniculaceae – dicot
  • SNG – Stangeriaceae – pteridophyte
  • SNN – Sonneratiaceae – dicot
  • SOL – Solanaceae – dicot
  • SPC – Sphenocleaceae – dicot
  • SPD – Siphonodontaceae – dicot
  • SPF – Schoepfiaceae – dicot
  • SPG – Sparganiaceae – monocot
  • SPI – Spiraeaceae – dicot
  • SPS – Sphaerosepalaceae – dicot
  • SPT – Sapotaceae – dicot
  • SPT* – Sphenostemonaceae – dicot
  • SRA – Saurauiaceae – dicot
  • SRC – Sarcolaenaceae – dicot
  • SRG – Sargentodoxaceae – dicot
  • SRM – Symphoremataceae – dicot
  • SRR – Saururaceae – dicot
  • SRS – Sarcospermataceae – dicot*
  • SRY – Strychnaceae – dicot
  • SRZ – Strelitziaceae – monocot
  • SST – Scyphostegiaceae – dicot
  • STC – Stachyuraceae – dicot
  • STM – Stemonaceae – monocot
  • STN – Stenomeridaceae – monocot
  • STP – Staphyleaceae – dicot
  • STR – Sterculiaceae – dicot
  • STR – Strasburgeriaceae – dicot**
  • STT – Stromatopteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • STY – Styracaceae – dicot
  • SUR – Surianaceae – dicot
  • SVN – Salviniaceae – pteridophyte
  • SYD – Stylidiaceae – dicot


  • S – Swedish Museum of Natural History (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet), Stockholm, Sweden
  • SACL – Santa Clara University Herbarium, Santa Clara, California
  • SACT – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Sacramento, California
  • SAL – Kansas Wesleyan University Herbarium, Salina, Kansas
  • SALA – Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • SAN – Forest Research Center, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
  • SANT – Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
  • SAP – Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
  • SAPCL – St. Andrews Presbyterian College Herbarium, Laurinburg, North Carolina
  • SAR – Sarawak Herbarium, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • SARA – Zemaljski Muzej Bosne I. Herzegovine, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • SARC – Roanoke College Herbarium, Salem, Virginia
  • SASK – W.P. Fraser Herbarium, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
  • SAT – Angelo State University Herbarium, San Angelo, Texas
  • SAWV – Salem International University Herbarium, Salem, West Virginia
  • SBBG – Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Herbarium, Santa Barbara, California
  • SBCC – Santa Barbara City College Herbarium, Santa Barbara, California
  • SBM – Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Herbarium, Santa Barbara, California
  • SBSC – Robert A. Vines Environmental Science Center Herbarium, Houston, Texas
  • SBU – Saint Bonaventure UniversityHerbarium, Saint Bonaventure University, Saint Bonaventure, New York
  • SC – Salem College Herbarium, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
  • SCHN – Smith College Herbarium, Northampton, Massachusetts
  • SCL – St. Cloud State University Herbarium, St. Cloud, Minnesota
  • SCZ, STRI – Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama
  • SD – San Diego Natural History Museum Herbarium, San Diego, California
  • SDC – South Dakota State University Herbarium, Brookings, South Dakota
  • SDM – San Diego Mesa College Herbarium, San Diego, California
  • SDSU – San Diego State University Herbarium, San Diego, California
  • SEL – Marie Selby Botanical Gardens Herbarium, Sarasota, Florida
  • SELU – Southeastern Louisiana University Herbarium, Hammond, Louisiana
  • SEMO – Southeast Missouri State University Herbarium, Cape Girardeau, Missouri
  • SEV – Universitat de Sevilla, Seville, Spain
  • SFRP – Southern Forest Range Program Herbarium Southern Research Station, Pineville, Louisiana
  • SFSU – Harry D. Thiers Herbarium, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California
  • SFV – California State University Herbarium, California State University, Northridge, California
  • SGO – Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile
  • SHIN – Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture, Japan
  • SHOR – Shorter University Herbarium, Rome, Georgia
  • SHST – S. R. Warner Herbarium, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas
  • SHTC California State University Stanislaus Herbarium Turlock California
  • SI – Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Buenos Aires, Argentina S
  • ICH Simpson College Herbarium Indianola Iowa
  • SIENA – Università di Siena, Siena, Italy
  • SIM Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences Herbarium, Staten Island, New York
  • SING – Singapore Botanic Gardens, Singapore
  • SIU – Southern Illinois University Herbarium, Carbondale Illinois
  • SJFM – Fairbanks Museum and Planetarium Herbarium, St. Johnsbury, Vermont
  • SJNM – San Juan College Herbarium Farmington New Mexico
  • SJSU Carl Sharsmith Herbarium, San Jose State University, San Jose, California
  • SLBI – South London Botanical Institute, London, England, UK
  • SLC – East High School Herbarium, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • SLRO – Slippery Rock University Herbarium, Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania
  • SM – Chongqing Municipal Academy of Chinese Materia Medica, Chongqing, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
  • SMCW – Saint Michael’s College Herbarium, Winooski, Vermont
  • SMH Saint Meinrad College of Liberal Arts Herbarium Saint Meinrad Indiana
  • SMS – Ozarks Regional Herbarium, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri
  • SMU – Botanical Research Institute of Texas Herbarium, Fort Worth, Texas
  • SNC – Heraly MacDonald Herbarium, St. Norbert College, De Pere, Wisconsin
  • SNU – Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
  • SO – Herbarium pf Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • SOA – Agricultural University, Plovdiv (Аграрен университет – Пловдив), Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • SOC – Southern Oregon University Herbarium, Ashland, Oregon
  • SOM – Herbarium of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Bulgaria
  • SOTO – College of the Ozarks Herbarium, Point Lookout, Missouri
  • SOUT – Long Island University Herbarium, Southampton, New York
  • SP – Instituto de Botânica, Sâo Paulo, Brasil
  • SPC – Seattle Pacific University Herbarium, Seattle, Washington
  • SPF – Universidade de Sâo Paulo Sâo Paulo, Brasil
  • SPH – Fox Research Forest Herbarium, Hillsborough, New Hampshire
  • SPLT – South Plains College Herbarium, Levelland, Texas
  • SPR – Luman Andrews Herbarium. Springfield Science Museum, Springfield, Massachusetts
  • SPWH – Marine Biological Laboratory Herbarium, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  • SRCG – Baylor University Herbarium, Gruver, Texas
  • SRGH – Zimbabwe National Herbarium, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • SRP – Boise State University Herbarium, Boise, Idaho
  • SRSC – Sul Ross State University Herbarium, Alpine, Texas
  • SS – Università di Sassari, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy
  • SSJC – San Joaquin County Herbarium, Stockton, California
  • SSLP – Rocky Mountain Research Station Herbarium, Provo, Utah
  • STAR – Arkansas State University Herbarium, State University, Arkansas
  • STPE – Florida Marine Research Institute Herbarium, St. Petersburg, Florida
  • STR – Institut de Botanique, Strasbourg, France
  • STU – Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany
  • SUCO – SUNY Oneonta Herbarium, Oneonta, New York
  • SUHC – Charles O. Wingo, Jr. Herbarium, Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland
  • SUU – Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah
  • SUVA – University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
  • SWC – Swarthmore College Herbarium, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania
  • SWF – Naples Botanical Garden Herbarium, Naples, Florida
  • SWFC – Southwest Forestry College, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China
  • SWMT – Rhodes College Herbarium, Memphis, Tennessee
  • SWT – Southwest Texas State University Herbarium, San Marcos, Texas
  • SYKO – Komi Scientific Centre, Academy of Sciences, Ural Department, Syktyvkar, Komi Republi
  • SYR – Syracuse University Herbarium, Syracuse, New York
  • SYRF – College of Environmental Science and Forestry Herbarium,
  • SUNY Syracuse, New York
  • SYS – Zhongshan (Sun Yatsen) University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
  • SZ – Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
  • SZB – Haus der Natur, Salzburg, Austria
  • SZU – University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications…

TAA – Tropical Agriculture Association: “The TAA is an international professional association of individuals, institutional/ corporate bodies and civil society organisations concerned with the role of agriculture for sustainable development throughout the world. We bring together people and organisations from developed and less developed countries to enable them.”

TAIR – “The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) collects information and maintains a database of genetic and molecular biology data for Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used model plant. – TAIR is managed by the nonprofit Phoenix Bioinformatics Corporation and is supported through institutional, lab and personal subscriptions. Prior funding was provided by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DBI-0850219). Please see the TAIR subscription page for information on how to subscribe for full access to all TAIR pages. – TAIR collaborates with the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) to provide researchers with the ability to search and order stocks. The ABRC’s mission is to acquire, preserve and distribute seed and DNA resources that are useful to the Arabidopsis research community.

ABRC catalog, stock and ordering pages hosted at TAIR can be accessed without a subscription.”

TCS – “The Cycad Society was started in 1977, and many of the charter members are still with the society… the board has actively strived to improve the society and increase member benefits. Two of the most important benefits of TCS membership are the Cycad Newsletter and the Cycad Society Seedbank.

TDWG – “Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG), also known as the Taxonomic Databases Working Group, is a not for profit scientific and educational association that is affiliated with the International Union of Biological Sciences. TDWG was formed to establish international collaboration among biological database projects. TDWG promoted the wider and more effective dissemination of information about the World’s heritage of biological organisms for the benefit of the world at large. Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) now focuses on the development of standards for the exchange of biological/biodiversity data.”

TERON – a mysterious set of references to a project that seems never to have materialized ”The European Community Specific Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration in the Field of Agriculture and Fisheries (Including Agro-industry, Food Technologies, Forestry, Aquaculture and Rural Development (1994-1998)” (see residue at Dr. T. A. Quine, University of Exeter)

TES – “Dr Kumar has proposed here the establishment of an international society for ethnobotany. Although related societies for ethnobiology and economic botany already exist, he has found that there are no international societies that place a focus on ethnobotany in their title For local and international research and education”

TFI – “The Fertilizer Institute is the voice of the fertilizer industry, representing the public policy, communication, stewardship and sustainability and market intelligence needs of fertilizer producers, wholesalers and retailers as well as the businesses that support them with goods and services.”

TGC – “The Garden Conservancy works to preserve and restore gardens in many ways, in both short-term and long-term partnerships, employing multiple services. The mission of the Garden Conservancy is to save and share outstanding American gardens for the education and inspiration of the public.“ (The Garden Conservancy does not use an acronym)

TFP – “Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) — The TFP is one of four USDA- designed food plans specifying foods and amounts of foods to provide adequate nutrition. It is used as the basis for designing Food Stamp Program benefits. It is the cheapest food plan and is calculated monthly using data collected for the consumer price index (CPI). However, it is not the same as the food components of the CPI. The monthly cost of the TFP used for the Food Stamp Program represents a national average of expenditures (four-person household consisting of an adult couple and two school-age children) adjusted for other household sizes through the use of a formula reflecting economies of scale. For food stamp purposes, the TFP as priced each June sets maximum benefit levels for the fiscal year beginning the following October.” (Womach, 2005)

TNC – “The mission of The Nature Conservancy is to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends. Our vision is a world where the diversity of life thrives, and people act to conserve nature for its own sake and its ability to fulfill our needs and enrich our lives.”

TNPS – “Since its founding in 1978, the Tennessee Native Plant Society has helped nurture the growing interest in wildflowers and other native flora while also working to protect Tennessee’s native plant heritage and preserve it for future generations. The society’s objectives include the education of the public about native plants and the support of efforts to protect wild plant communities. We believe that a public educated about wildflowers of the state will help to ensure the conservation of this irreplaceable resource.”

TNRS – “The Taxonomic Name Resolution Service (TNRS) is a tool for automated standardization of plant scientific names. The TNRS corrects spelling errors and alternative spellings to a standard list of names, and converts out of date names (synonyms) to the current accepted name. The TNRS can process many names at once, saving hours of tedious and error-prone manual name correction. For names that cannot be resolved automatically, the TNRS present a list of possibilities and provides tools for researching and selecting the preferred name. The TNRS was developed by BIEN in collaboration with The iPlant Collaborative, The Missouri Botanical Garden and many other individuals and institutions”

TPL – “At the Trust for Public Land, we don’t just save land—we save land for people to enjoy, from neighborhood parks to national parks. We depend on the ongoing support of individuals to make sure our work carries on well into the future. Our mission is to create parks and protect land for people, ensuring healthy, livable communities for generations to come. Every park, playground, and public space we create is an open invitation to explore, wonder, discover, and play. We’re proud to say that we’ve been connecting communities to the outdoors—and to each other—since 1972. Today, millions of Americans live within a 10-minute walk of a park or natural area we helped create, and countless more visit every year.”

TROPICOS – Created and maintained by Missouri Botanical Garden, TROPICOS is a database of plant names.

TSFA – Tennessee State Florists’ Association: “ Our members come from myriad backgrounds and locations who create, motivate, and inspire with their talent in the art of floral design. It is to that end that TSFA volunteers and board members work tirelessly to promote growth, excellence, and inspiration for both the designers and their consumers. It is through the combined efforts of both floral designers, sales personnel, delivery drivers, shop owners, administrators, educators, and suppliers that we are able to offer classes, business seminars, workshops, floral forums, and more. Our eyes are not focused on where we have been, but where we intend to go. Together we can spread joy and inspiration one floral design at a time.”

TSFA – “ The objectives of the Texas State Florists’ Association are to promote and encourage the exchange between members of ideas, principles, policies, and methods of conducting the floral business; to promote good will, educate nd promote honest dealings with outhr florists and the public; and to further generally the floral business.”

TSL – “The Sainsbury Laboratory is a world-leading research institute working on the science of plant-microbe interactions. The Laboratory has developed an enviable reputation for the quality of its fundamental scientific research but is also committed to delivering science solutions that reduce crop losses to important diseases. The Sainsbury Laboratory favours daring, long-term research and has state-of-the- art technologies and support services to enable cutting- edge science. The Laboratory provides an outstanding training environment that prepares postgraduate students, postdoctoral scientists and early career project leaders to excel in their careers. Many scientists who have passed through the Laboratory have continued their careers in prestigious laboratories and institutes around the world.”

TSPB – “The Taiwan Society of Plant Biologists (TSPB) is dedicated to promoting and advancing plant biology research and enhancing networks among institutions and researchers in Taiwan.” (GPC website)


T value – “Soil loss tolerance (T value) — For a specific soil, the maximum average annual soil loss expressed as tons per acre per year that will permit current production levels to be maintained economically and indefinitely. T values range from 2 to 5 tons per acre per year. According to the 1997 national resources inventory, about 77 million acres of cropland is eroding at 2T or greater, and more than 27 million acres are eroding at more than 8T.” (Womach 2005)

TM – Traditional Medicine

typ. cons. – typus conservandus, the selected type will be conserved, regardless as to circumstances

typ. des. – typi designatio, type is being designated

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • TAC – Taccaceae – monocot
  • TAE – Taenitidaceae – dicot
  • TAM – Tamaricaceae – dicot
  • TAP** – Tapisciaceae – dicot
  • TAX – Taxaceae – gymnosperm
  • TCA – Tetracarpaeaceae – dicot
  • TCH – Trichopodaceae – monocot
  • TEA – Theaceae – dicot
  • TEC – Tecophilaeaceae – monocot
  • TEO – Theophrastaceae – dicot
  • TEP** – Tepuianthaceae – dicot
  • THA – Thalictraceae – dicot
  • THE** – Themidaceae – monocot
  • THG – Theligonaceae – dicot
  • THL – Thelypteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • THN – Thunbergiaceae – dicot
  • THR – Thyrsopteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • THS – Thismiaceae – monocot
  • THU – Thurniaceae – monocot
  • THY – Thymelaeaceae – dicot
  • TIC** – Ticodendraceae – dicot
  • TIL – Tiliaceae – dicot
  • TMD – Tremandraceae – dicot
  • TMR – Tetrameristaceae – dicot
  • TMS – Tmesipteridaceae – pteridophyte
  • TNR – Turneraceae – dicot
  • TOF** – Tofieldiaceae – monocot
  • TOR – Torricelliaceae – dicot
  • TOV – Tovariaceae – dicot
  • TPL – Trapellaceae – dicot
  • TPS – Triplostegiaceae – dicot
  • TRA – Trapaceae – dicot
  • TRB – Tribelaceae – dicot
  • TRC – Trochodendraceae – dicot
  • TRG – Trigoniaceae – dicot
  • TRI – Triuridaceae – monocot
  • TRL – Trilliaceae – monocot
  • TRM – Trimeniaceae – dicot
  • TRN** – Ternstroemiaceae – dicot
  • TRP – Tropaeolaceae – dicot
  • TRS** – Tristichaceae – dicot
  • TTC – Tetrachondraceae – dicot
  • TTG – Tetragoniaceae – dicot
  • TTM – Tetramelaceae – dicot
  • TTR – Tetracentraceae – dicot
  • TXO – Taxodiaceae – gymnosperm
  • TYP – Typhaceae – monocot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

T – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Threonine T-DNA

TALE – “three–amino acid loop extension” – homeodomain proteins that play significant roles in development. Permalink: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2jb086jg


TCDD – Dioxin.

TCH – gene

TCP – transcription factor genes, such as CYC and DICH

TFs – Transcription factors control cellular processes

TFL 1 – Terminal Flower 1, a gene that “antagonizes LEAFY and

APETALA” and thus thwarts flowering. (Singer, 2018) Thr – abbreviation for the amino acid Threonine

Ti – plasmid tumour inducing “A Ti or tumour inducing plasmid is a plasmid that often, but not always, is a part of the genetic equipment that Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes use to transduce their genetic material to plants.” (Wikipedia, 2018)

TIR – protein

TOM – transcription facto

Trp – abbreviation for the amino acid Tryptophan t-RNA

TTSS – type III secretion system Or for greater precision: ““The type III secretion system (TTSS) is used by bacteria to deliver multiple effector proteins targeting host proteins leading to suppression of basal immune responses. This allows bacteria to accumulate in the plant apoplast.” Excerpt From: Martin J. Hodson & John A. Bryant. “Functional Biology of Plants.” John Wiley & Sons, 2012-03-12.

TWIN – gene

Tyr – abbreviation for the amino acid Tyrosine


  • TAA – Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
  • TAD – Botanical Institute of the Tajikistan Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
  • TAI – National Taiwan University, Herbarium, Taipei,Taiwan
  • TAIF – Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan
  • TALL – Tallinn Botanic Garden, Tallinn, Estonia
  • TAM – Estonian Museum of Natural History Tallinn, Estonia
  • TAMU – Biology Department Herbarium Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  • TARI – National Herbarium of Iran, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran
  • TASH – National Academy of Science, Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • TAU – Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • TBI – Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • TCD – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
  • TEFH – Cyril Hardy Nelson-Sutherland Herbarium, National Autonomous University of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • TENN – University of Tennessee Herbarium, Knoxville, Tennessee
  • TER – Indiana State University Herbarium, Terre Haute, Indian
  • TEX – Plant Resources Center University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
  • TFC – Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • THIB – Nicholls State University Herbarium, Thibodaux, Louisiana
  • THRI – Ash Mountain Herbarium, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, Three Rivers, California
  • TI – University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • TIC – California Department of Fish and Wildlife Herbarium, Terminal Island, California
  • TK – P. N. Krylov Herbarium, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
  • TL – Université Paul Sabatier,Toulouse, France
  • TNS – National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan
  • TO – Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy
  • TPV – Prairie View A&M University Herbarium, Prairie View, Texas
  • TR Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali Italy “Trento, Trentino”
  • TRH – Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • TRIN – The National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago, St. Augustine, Trinidad
  • TROM – University of Tromsoe, Tromsoe, Norway
  • TRT, TRTC – Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • TSB – Università degli Studi di Trieste, Italy Trieste
  • TSM – Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Trieste, Italy
  • TU – University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  • TUB – University of Tübinge, Tübingen, Germany
  • TUH – Central Herbarium of Tehran University,Tehran, Iran
  • TUR – University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • TUS – Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications….

UC ANR – See ANR, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

UKPSF – “The UK Plant Sciences Federation (UKPSF) is a special interest group of the Royal Society of Biology, which aims to bring together the breadth of the UK plant science sector.” (GPC website)

UNPS – “The Utah Native Plant Society is dedicated to the appreciation, preservation, conservation and responsible use of the native plant and plant communities found in the state of Utah and the Intermountain West. Our goal is to foster public recognition of the spectacularly diverse flora of the state–a natural treasure to be valued, respected and protected.”

UpS – “United Plant Savers’ mission is to protect native medicinal plants of the United States and Canada and their native habitat while ensuring an abundant renewable supply of medicinal plants for generations to come. These Are Exciting Times for Herbalists. We are witnessing the art of herbalism rapidly regaining its rightful place in the American tradition of health and healing. However, as herbalism flourishes and winds its way into the “main stream” of America, it is eliciting a unique set of problems and concerns.”

URA – “Uruguay Round Agreements (URA) Act of 1994 — P.L. 103-465 approved and implemented the trade agreements concluded in the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations conducted under the auspices of the GATT, including the Agreement on Agriculture, the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures, and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The law allowed for the reduction of tariffs and government subsidies on agricultural products and prohibits the use of Section 22 fees and quotas with respect to products imported from WTO members. The law also extended the authorization of funding for the Export Enhancement Program (EEP) and Dairy Export Incentive Program (DEIP) through 2001 and eliminated the requirement that the EEP be targeted to respond to unfair trade practices. The law eliminated the requirement that the Market Promotion Program be used to counter the adverse effects of unfair trade practices. The law also included a Sense-of-Congress resolution that the President should consult with other nations to discuss appropriate levels of food aid commitments to developing countries.” (Womach, 2005)

USB – United Soybean Board

USDA – The United States Department of Agriculture: “We provide leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on public policy, the best available science, and effective management.”

USGRSA – “Uniform Grain and Rice Storage Agreement (USGRSA) — The contractual arrangement governing transactions between the Farm Service Agency and private grain storage companies. Commercial warehouses storing grain under a non-recourse loan or owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) must have a signed USGRSA.” (Womach, 2005)

USGSA – “United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) of 1916 — P.L. 64-190, as amended (7 U.S.C. 71 et seq.), authorizes the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration to establish official marketing standards (not health and safety standards) for grains and oilseeds, and requires that exported grains and oilseeds be officially weighed and inspected. Domestically marketed grain and oilseeds may be, but are not required to be, officially inspected. Export inspections are carried out by federal inspectors or by federally supervised state inspection agencies, called delegated official inspection agencies. Official inspections of domestically traded grain is done by federally supervised state agencies and private companies, called designated official inspection agencies. Typically, marketing standards describe the physical characteristics (such as weight, damaged kernels, foreign material, shrunken and broken kernels, and defects) of the commodity and serve as contract language to facilitate marketing. Major changes to the law were adopted in the USGSA Amendments of 1968, the USGSA of 1976 (P.L. 94-582), and the Grain Quality Improvement Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-641).” (Womach, 2005)

USNVC – The United States National Vegetation Classification (See also ESA)

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

UA – Urban Agriculture

  • UDALF – soil classification – a kind of Alfisol
  • UDERT – soil classification – a kind of Vertisol
  • UDOLL – soil classification – a kind of Mollisol
  • USULT – soil classification – a kind of Ultisol
  • UMBREPT – soil classification – a kind of Inceptisol
  • USTALF – soil classification – a kind of Alfisol
  • USTERT – soil classification – a kind of Vertisol
  • USTOLL – soil classification – a kind of Mollisol

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • ULM – Ulmaceae – dicot
  • UMB – Umbelliferae – dicot
  • URT – Urticaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

UDA – Urtica dioica agglutinin, a lectin

UEA – Ulex europaeus (gorse) agglutinin, a lectin


UV – Ultraviolet light


  • UA – Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia
  • UB – Universidade de BrasÌlia, BrasÌlia, Distrito Federal, Brasil
  • UBA – Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, MongoliaUBC – University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • UC/JEPS – University and Jepson Herbaria, University of California, Berkeley, California
  • UCHT – University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Herbarium, Chattanooga, Tennessee
  • UCMM – Herbario Rafael M. Moscoso, Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic
  • UCS – Union College Herbarium Union College “Schenectady, New York”
  • UCWI – University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica
  • UEC – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Sâo Paulo, Brasil
  • UI – Uinta Herbarium Bureau of Land Management, Vernal, Utah
  • ULF – Herbier Louis-Marie, Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
  • UME – Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
  • UNCC – Mecklenburg County Park and Recreation Herbarium, Charlotte, North Carolina
  • UOS – Sewanee Herbarium Sewanee, The University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee
  • UPA – University of Patras, Patras, Greece
  • UPCB – Departamento de Botânica, Federal University of Paran, Curitiba, Brasil
  • UPRRP – University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • UPS – Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • URT – Università degli Studi di Roma Tre, Rome, ItalyUS;
  • USNC – United States National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, Washington District of Columbia, USA
  • USCG – University of San Carlos of Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala
  • USCH – A. C. Moore Herbarium, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
  • USD – Rafael M. Moscoso Herbarium, Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
  • USF – University of South Florida Herbarium,Tampa, Florida
  • USFS – Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Forest Service Herbarium, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • USJ – Herbario Luis A. Fournier, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • USM – Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru
  • USZ – Herbario del Oriente Boliviano, Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno, Santa Cruz de la Sierr,a Bolivia
  • UTC – Intermountain Herbarium, Logan, Utah
  • UTM – University of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee
  • UVAL – Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala
  • UVST – Toney Keeney Herbarium, Southwest Texas Junior College, Uvalde, Texas
  • UWSP – Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Stevens Point, Wisconsin


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications…

VIB – “Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie is a life sciences research institute in Flanders, Belgium. With more than 1470 scientists from over 60 countries, we perform basic research into the molecular foundations of life… an excellence-based entrepreneurial institute that focuses on translating basic scientific results into pharmaceutical, agricultural and industrial applications [that] works in close partnership with five universities − UGent, KU Leuven, University of Antwerp, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Hasselt University and is funded by the Flemish government.”

VNPS – “The Virginia Native Plant Society is dedicated to the protection and preservation of the native plants of Virginia and their habitats, in order to sustain for generations to come the integrity of the Commonwealth’s rich natural heritage of ecosystems and biodiversity for purposes of enjoyment, enlightenment, sustainable use, and our own very survival. To this end, we advocate and follow practices that will conserve our natural endowment, and we discourage and combat practices that will endanger or destroy it. We are committed to do all we can to slow the accelerating conversion of natural landscape to built and planted landscape and to reduce its damage to natural ecosystems.”

Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

Var., vars. – Variety,

V. v. c. – (Vidi vivam cultam) tells the reader a plant was seen by the author in cultivation.

V. v. s. – (Vidi vivam spontaneum) – tells the reader a plant was seen, alive and in the wild.

V. s. c. – (Vidi seccam cultam) – the author studied a dried specimen of a cultivated sample of the plant

V. s. s. – (Vidi seccam sponaneum) – the author inspected a dried specimen of a wild-collected plant.

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • VAC – Vacciniaceae – dicot
  • VAL – Valerianaceae – dicot
  • VHL – Vahliaceae – dicot
  • VIO – Violaceae – dicot
  • VIS – Viscaceae – dicot
  • VIT – Vitaceae – dicot
  • VIV – Vivianaceae – dicot
  • VLL – Velloziaceae – monocot
  • VOC – Vochysiaceae – dicot
  • VRB – Verbenaceae – dicot
  • VTT – Vittariaceae – pteridophyte

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

V – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Valine Val – abbreviation for the amino acid Valine

VP – viviparous gene

VOC – Volatile organic compounds.

VVA – Vicia villosa agglutinin – a lectin


  • V – Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • VAL – Universitat de Valéncia, Valencia, Spain
  • VAS – Vassar College Herbarium, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York
  • VEN – Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela
  • VER – Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Verona, Italy
  • VDB – Botanical Research Institute of Texas Herbarium, Fort Worth, Texas
  • VIT – Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
  • VLA – Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
  • VNC – Los Angeles Valley College Herbarium, Van Nuys, California
  • VNM – Institute of Tropical Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Publications…

WAM – Wildflower Association of Michigan: “WAM is … committed to being a resource for residents in Michigan (homeowners, corporations, land managers, educators, naturalists, and others) who wish to learn more about native plants and their associated habitats. We advocate for and provide education on native plants and native landscaping through our conference, our website, our grant program, and our newsletter.”

WAOB – As part of the Office of the Chief Economist, the World Agricultural Outlook Board: coordinates the commodity forecasting program; monitors global weather and analyzes its impact on agriculture; and coordinates USDA’s weather, climate and remote sensing work.” (Womach 2005)

WBF – “The World Banana Forum is a space where the main stakeholders of the global banana supply-chain work together to achieve consensus on best practices for sustainable production and trade. We believe collaboration is the key for progress. The WBF brings together retailers, importers, producers, exporters, consumer associations, governments, research institutions, trade unions, and civil society organizations.”

WFC – World Forestry Congress: A program of the FAO – “the Congress will be a key occasion for the world’s foresters and forest supporters to gather, to share their expertise and experience, and to project a new vision for the future.”

WffSA – “WF&FSA is the one – and only – association solely dedicated to the floral wholesale business and its suppliers.”

WHCP – Water Hyacinth Control Program, see AIPCP (Aquatic Invasive Plant Control Program, California)

WHIP – “Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program — A program established by the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) to promote voluntary implementation of on-farm conservation practices to develop habitat for wetland and upland wildlife, threatened and endangered species, fish and other types of wildlife using cost-share payments and technical assistance.” (Womach, 2005)

WIC – The “Farmers’ Market Nutrition Act of 1992, P.L. 102-314 established a program authorizing projects that provide participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) with food coupons that can be used to purchase fresh, unprocessed foods, such as fruits and vegetables at farmers’ markets.” (Womach, 2005)

WNPS – “Members of the Washington Native Plant Society share a common interest in Washington’s unique and diverse flora. We represent all levels of botanical knowledge, from professionals and experienced amateur botanists, to beginners just becoming curious about the beautiful plants and habitats of our state. ¶For 40 years the Washington Native Plant Society has enjoyed educating members and others about the value of plants native to the Evergreen State. ¶Conservation and advocacy make the Washington Native Plant Society the voice for native plants. Our greatest conservation work is on-the- ground and around the state where hundreds of Society members volunteer their time to restore habitats, strive for good conservation policies, conduct native plant inventories and monitor rare plant populations.”

WNPS – “Welcome to the Wyoming Native Plant Society (WNPS). Our goals are to encourage the appreciation and conservation of the native flora and plant communities of Wyoming through education, research, communication, and activities.”

WPMA – “The Wood Products Manufacturers Association’s mission is to provide our members with the tools to help their business succeed. We provide our members with the finest information resources and services available. We take a personal interest in your business and want to be an important part of your success story. The Association acts as a clearing house for solving problems of mutual concern and assists members in controlling costs. We promote healthy, profitable business environments and educational opportunities that assist members in developing skills for more competitive business operations.”

WRI – World Resources Institute: “Mission & Goals: WRI’s mission is to move human society to live in ways that protect Earth’s environment and its capacity to provide for the needs and aspirations of current and future generations. Our Goals: We organize our work around six critical goals that the world must achieve this decade in order to secure a sustainable future: 1 Climate: Protect communities and natural ecosystems from damage caused by greenhouse gas emissions, and generate opportunities for people by catalyzing a global transition to a low-carbon economy; 2 Energy: Drive the scale-up of clean, affordable power systems throughout the world to deliver sustainable socio-economic development; 3 Food: Ensure the world’s food systems reduce their impact on the environment, drive economic opportunity, and sustainably feed 9.6 billion people by 2050; 4 Forests: Alleviate poverty, enhance food security, conserve biodiversity, and mitigate climate change by reducing forest loss and restoring productivity to degraded, deforested lands; 5 Water: Achieve a water-secure future by mapping, measuring, and mitigating global water risks; 6 Sustainable Cities: Improve quality of life in cities by developing and scaling environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable urban and transport solutions.” (Womach, 2005)

WSSA – “The Weed Science Society of America was founded in 1956. The Society was established to encourage and promote the development of knowledge concerning weeds and their impact on the environment. MISSION: The Weed Science Society of America, a non-profit professional society, promotes research, education, and extension outreach activities related to weeds; provides science-based information to the public and policy makers; and fosters awareness of weeds and their impacts on managed and natural ecosystems.”

WSSJ – “Collaborating scientists from various fields of specialization founded “The Weed Society of Japan” in January 1962 in order to establish rational and effective weed management technology. Then, the Society had been satisfactorily developing and was renamed into “Weed Science Society of Japan” (WSSJ) in April 1975, which simultaneously joined the Association of Japanese Agricultural Scientific Societies. WSSJ was also affiliated with the International Weed Science Society in 1977. WSSJ has played important roles to establish “Weed Science” as an original field in agronomy, and to provide occasions for information exchange on weed science in wide views in Japan and other Asia-Pacific regions via our own journals/books, annual meetings, symposiums and so forth… WSSJ consists of people who are playing active parts in weed research in viewpoints from principle to practical aspects. WSSJ aims at contributing to the prevention of weed damage and to the utilization of weed value by providing the chance of research presentation and information exchange.”

WSTDA – You are gonna love this one “An idea that has been percolating in the Washington tree fruit industry for years has just about come to fruition, as the Transition Board of Directors of the Washington State Tree Fruit Association (WSTFA) has named Jon DeVaney as president. The soon-to-be consolidated industry organization will be formed from the merger of the Washington State Horticultural Association (WSHA), Yakima Valley Growers-Shippers Association (YVGSA), Wenatchee Valley Traffic Association (WVTA) and Washington Growers Clearing House Association (WGCH).”

WTO – “World Trade Organization (WTO) — The international organization established by the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations to oversee implementation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the agreements arising from the Uruguay Round, including the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture.” (Womach, 2005)

WUMFA – “The Wisconsin and Upper Michigan Florists Association (WUMFA) began over 85 years ago when concerned florists got together to discuss the industry. Change is inevitable and an association allows those in the same field to come together to discuss changing trends and make plans for the future. WUMFA’s membership currently consists of over 200 retail florists, wholesalers, growers and industry supporters who are committed to the WUMFA mission: To offer exceptional educational opportunities, encourage the exchange of knowledge by connecting people interested in the floral industry, support the professional efforts of its members and promote the public’s awareness of flowers.”

WVNPS – West Virginia Native Plant Society: “Dedicated to the conservation and appreciation of West Virginia’s native plants and habitats.”

WWF – World Wildlife Fund: “For 50 years, WWF has been protecting the future of nature. The world’s leading conservation organization, WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by more than one million members in the United States and close to five million globally. WWF’s unique way of working combines global reach with a foundation in science, involves action at every level from local to global, and ensures the delivery of innovative solutions that meet the needs of both people and nature.”

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

W – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Tryptophan

WAXY – a gene that codes for synthesis of Amylose. One allele at this locus impacts production of amylose, yielding sticky rice.

Wee – protein kinase

WGA – Wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin considered to provide

grains with chemical defense against insects




Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • WDS – Woodsiaceae – pteridophyte
  • WIN – Winteraceae – dicot
  • WLS – Wellstediaceae – dicot
  • WLW – Welwitschiaceae – gymnosperm


  • W – Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • WAIK – University of Waikato Herbarium, Hamilton, New Zealand
  • WARM – Central Missouri State University Herbarium, Warrensburg, Missouri
  • WAVI – Colby College Herbarium, Waterville, Maine
  • WDNE – Winnemucca District Herbarium Bureau of Land Management, Winnemucca, Nevada
  • WELT – Museum of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand
  • WFBVA – Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Vienna, Austria
  • WH – Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaWI – Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • WIES – Museum Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • WIND – National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek, Namibia
  • WINO Saint Mary’s College Herbarium Winona Minnesota
  • WIR – N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (Всероссийский институт растениеводства имени Н.И. Вавилова), Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • WIS – Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WisconsinWHO – Western Oklahoma Herbarium, Southwestern Oklahoma State University Weatherford, Oklahoma
  • WSY – Royal Horticultural Society (RHS Garden Wisley), Wisley, England, UK
  • WTU – University of Washington (Washington Territorial University) Herbarium, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  • WU – Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • WUK – North West Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
  • WWF – Rob & Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Herbarium, Sinton, Texas


Description, Structure, Classification, Ecology, Cultivation….

XERIALF – soil classification – a kind of Alfisol

XEROLL – soil classification – a kind of Mollisol

Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • XAN – Xanthorrhoeaceae – monocot
  • XER** – Xeronemataceae – monocot
  • XPH – Xanthophyllaceae – dicot
  • XYR – Xyridaceae – monocot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…



  • XAL – Instituto de EcologÌa, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico



Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

Y – 1-letter symbol for the amino acid Tyrosine



  • YA – National Herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon
  • YM – National Park Service Herbarium, Yosemite National Park, California
  • YU – Yale University Herbarium, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut
  • YUO – Carl F. Chuey Herbarium Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio


Associations, Authorities, Organizations, & Programs…

ZBG – Zilker Botanical Gardens, Austin, TX.


Kew Plant Family Abbreviations:

  • ZAM – Zamiaceae – gymnosperm
  • ZAN – Zannichelliaceae – monocot
  • ZIN – Zingiberaceae – monocot
  • ZOS – Zosteraceae – monocot
  • ZYG – Zygophyllaceae – dicot

Genes, Control, Molecules, & Pathways…

Zm – Zea mays, as referenced in citations of genes, proteins, etc.

i.e. ZmMYBC1 Zn – element


  • Z – Universität, Zürich Zürich, Switzerland
  • Z; ZT – Joint Herbarium of the University of Zurich and the ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, Zurich
  • ZA – Herbarium Croaticum, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  • ZAHO – Herbarium Ivo and Marija Horvat, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  • ZT – Eidgenˆssische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Other Languages

ир – Институт по растителни генетични ресурси

„К. Малков“ – Institute of Plant Genetic Resources – Sadovo


NIKI SIMPSON; “Botanical symbols: a new symbol set for new images”, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 162, Issue 2, 1 February 2010, Pages 117–129, https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j. 1095-8339.2009.01021.x

Botanical Symbol Fonts: Simpson N 2009b. Simpson botany symbols.otf (version 1.0). An OpenType font with key to the symbol set. https://www.visualbotany.co.uk/symbol-download

Once the font set is downloaded, the following symbols are available through keyboard strokes as indicated:

a – ‘a’ – female

A – ‘A’ – female

b – ‘b’ – male

B – ‘B’ – male

c – ‘c’ – perfect, hermaphrodite

C – ‘C’ – perfect. hermaphrodite

d – ‘d’ – monoecious D – ‘D’ – monoecious e – ‘e’ – dioecious

E – ‘E’ – dioecious

f – ‘f’ – unknown sex F – ‘F’ – unknown sex g – ‘g’ – sterile, neuter G – ‘G’ – sterile

h – ‘h’ – annual

H – ‘H’ – annual i – ‘i’ – biennial I – ‘I’ – biennial

j – ‘j’ – non-woody perennial

J – ‘J’ – non-woody perennial

k – ‘k’ – monocarpic perennial

K – ‘K’ – monocarpic perennial

l – ‘l’ – subshrub L -’L’ – subshrub m – ‘m’ – shrub

M – ‘M’ – shrub

n – ‘n’ – tree

N – ‘N’ – tree

o – ‘o’ – parasite

O – ‘O’ – parasite

p – ‘p’ – hemi-parasite

P – ‘P’ – hemi-parasite

q – ‘q’ – smell, fragrance

Q – ‘Q’ – smell, fragrance

r – ‘r’ – toxic

R – ‘R’ – toxic

s – ‘s’ – protected status, endangered

S – ‘S’ -protected status, endangered

t – ‘t’ – information, further info

T – ‘T’ – information, further info

u – ‘u’ – hybrid (genotypic)

U – ‘U’ – hybrid

v – ‘v’ – graft hybrid (chimera)

V – ‘V’ – graft hybrid

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